Global Higher Education

Abstracts & Citations (Updated January 19, 2017)

The following abstracts have been selected to represent the breadth of emerging scholarship on cross-border higher education and to provide further resources on issues surrounding international branch campuses. Abstracts are grouped by subject and are alphabetized by author within each subject. Publication types are listed at the beginning of each abstract.

C-BERT welcomes suggestions for references to include in our annotated bibliography. To suggest a reference, please email us at global.highereducation@gmail.com.

General

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Altbach, P.G. (2011). Is there a future for branch campuses? International Higher Education, 65, 1-9.

‘Branch campuses seem to be the flavor of the month or, perhaps, the decade. Universities, mostly but not exclusively from the developed and mainly English- speaking countries, have established overseas branches worldwide—mainly in developing and emerging economies. The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education counted 162 branch campuses in 2009, with American universities accounting for 48 percent of the total. No doubt, the number of branches has increased significantly since then. The Arabian Gulf has received a great deal of global attention since several countries have welcomed—and paid for—branch campuses, as part of their higher education growth strategies. For example, Education City in Doha, Qatar, currently hosts six American universities and one from Britain. Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates, and other Gulf countries have additional branch campuses of foreign universities. Singapore predates the Gulf as a higher education hub.’

‘Given this boom in branches, several fundamental questions need to be raised: what are branch campuses? Are they sustainable over time? What unique service do they render to students and the academic community?’

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Altbach, P.G. (2010). Why branch campuses may be unsustainable. International Higher Education, 58, 2-3.

A 43 percent increase of branch campuses between 2006-2009 was found, providing evidence that the immediate future of branch campuses looks to be strong. The longer term is more difficult to predict. Altbach states that only a few branch campuses are really campuses; most are small and specialized to take advantage of the market. This is why most programs are offered in business management and information technology. Along with the lack of reflection in infrastructure to the home campus, branch campuses aren’t able to ensure a strong, present professoriate, and thus many courses are taught in intensive modules. A branch campus will attempt to replicate the educational equivalent to the home campus in terms of selectivity and quality; however, this can be problematic depending on the ranking and prestige of the home campus. A potential future risk to branch campuses is the unclear pace of host countries’ expansion of local higher education.

REPORT: Becker, R.F.J. (2009). International branch campuses: Markets and strategies. London: Observatory on Borderless Higher Education.

This report is an update to the Observatory’s study of international branch campuses from October 2006, with a focus on market patterns and strategic concerns. Although there is no consensus on the definition of an “international branch campus” (IBC), the report states two factors which an off-shore institution must meet to be included as an IBC; 1) “the unit should be operated by the institution or through a joint-venture in which the institution is a partner in the name of the foreign institution, and 2) upon successful completion of the course program, which is fully undertaken at the unit abroad, students are awarded a degree from the foreign institution.” Since 2006, IBCs which meet this criteria have increased by 43%, with the market being dominated by US institutions, both in terms of the number established and growth rate. Although IBCs are usually established from developed countries to developing countries, a current trend of developing countries establishing an IBC to other developing countries is occurring and currently comprises 16% of the market. The increase in competition to establish an IBC, as well as several IBC closures occurring, has led to the reaffirmation of the need for home institutions and host countries to undertake careful market research (curriculum and staffing issues, management, strategic planning, policy and procedures). With careful market research both the home institution and host country can benefit from IBCs. The home institution can increase enrollment thus adding to its revenue, while a host country can increase its infrastructure and retain students and counter a brain drain effect. The analysis speculates that the expansion of IBCs will continue; however, due to the rapid increase in IBCs, new challenges and barriers for home institutions, host countries, and students will present themselves.

NEWS REPORT: Blumenstyk, G. (2006, June 28). Colleges face more lawsuits abroad and costlier settlements over all, speakers say. Chronicle of Higher Education.

The globalization of higher education is associated with an increase in litigation. Colleges that establish campuses in other countries are increasingly vulnerable to lawsuits in Britain, Greece, Italy, Singapore, Thailand, and France. The cost and complexity of defending themselves against these foreign lawsuits leaves colleges vulnerable. In 2005, more than 600 lawsuits were filed against colleges, most involving claims of employment discrimination, sexual harassment, or retaliation. Rather than chance a large judgment, many universities are willing to settle lawsuits considered to be nuisance suits.

BOOK CHAPTER: Croom, P. (2011). Motivations and aspirations for international branch campuses. In D.W. Chapman & R. Sakamoto (Eds.), Cross-border partnerships in higher education: Strategies and issues (pp. 45-66). New York: Routledge.

Croom analyzes the role of partners in international branch campuses. The author compares the partnership models of Japanese branch campuses during the 1980s and current branch campuses in Qatar and Dubai. Partnership relationships bear on a number of branch campus concerns, including regulation, financing, and operational and academic flexibility. Often, partners are motivated by an eagerness to announce a branch campus opening and do not engage in sufficient analysis of the partnership opportunity.

MAGAZINE ARTICLE: Dessoff, A. (2011). Cultivating branch campuses. International Educator, 20(6), 18-24, 26-27.

‘A decade after the idea of establishing branch university campuses in other countries began to gain wide popularity, the experiences of institutions that have tried it, mostly in Asia and the Persian Gulf region, are producing valuable lessons. As many have found, creating and operating foreign branch campuses often presents unforeseen challenges, given ever-shifting global political and economic conditions, which is causing some universities to change their strategies.’

MAGAZINE ARTICLE: Dessoff, A. (2007). Branching out. International Educator, 16(2), 24-30.

Host countries have encouraged the operation of branch campuses, particularly from American universities. Those universities who have already established offshore campuses offer this advice: Get a long-term commitment from the host country’s government; do a feasibility study to establish if the offshore campus is consistent with the mission of your institution; don’t underestimate all the small details associated with opening and operating an offshore campus; and always remember that you are the guests of a foreign government and you must comply with their local customs, practices, laws and regulations.

BOOK: Fegan, J., & Field, M.H. (Eds.) (2009). Education across borders: Politics, policy and legislative action. New York: Springer.

This edited volume explores cross-border education from the political and policy perspective of the host country. While much of the focus on cross-border education has been on the U.S. and on capacity and capability issues, there has been less focus on the education process itself. Using case studies of Australia, Latin America, China, Ireland, Portugal, South Africa, and the United Kingdom, the book explores issues such as the knowledge economy, institutional and student mobility, language, teacher/faculty migration, impact on national education systems, articulation between secondary and higher education, and e-learning. Taken together, the cases illustrate how host country environments are inseparable from their political, economic, cultural, and pedagogical particularities.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Franklin, A., & Alzouebi, K. (2014). Sustainability of International Branch Campuses in the United Arab Emirates: A Vision for the Future. The Journal of General Education, 63(2-3), 121-137.

‘The United Arab Emirates is developing higher education institutions that will contribute to an educational sector providing premium degree programs. There was a belief that the recognition and achievements these institutions attained over decades in their native land would be transferable in the implementation of international branch campuses. This research project explores the sustainability of branch campuses in the UAE and determines the factors contributing to their demise, struggles, or initial success while examining their mission, vision, and strategic plan, asking: Can institutions be successfully imported into the UAE without adapting to their new social, cultural, and educational terrain?’

REPORT: Garrett, R. (2002). International branch campuses: Scale and significance. London: Observatory on Borderless Higher Education.

The author argues that the international branch campus, while a new model of delivery, is a continuation of the long-standing effort to recruit international students. The report offers an initial assessment of the scale of activity, rationale, and wider significance of international branch campuses. The article could provide an interesting historical snapshot of branch campus activity. Only 18 branch campuses are included on the “comprehensive” list, with another 6 listed as scheduled to open. However, methodological issues arise considering that no governments collect systematic data, and there are blurred lines and definitions regarding what institutions themselves call branch campuses.

As for the rationale, Garrett argues that, during the 1980’s many countries relaxed fee restrictions for foreign students unable to afford full-time study overseas. This reduced or eliminated the need for overseas travel. Partnerships began as an exporting strategy for foreign institutions. However, many such partnerships ran into quality control issues. Branch campuses offer firmer corporate control, higher local profile, and an innovative way to stand out from competitors.

Garrett argues that, while online delivery may be an option, it is more appropriate for graduate education, due to the more independent nature of graduate students. Undergraduates respond better to face-to-face learning, and branch campuses are mostly focused on undergraduate education.

The majority of branch campuses are built on existing partnerships or alliances.

There may also be spin-off gains created by raising international profile. For example, Curtin University was selected to deliver all higher education courses to Shell employees worldwide, after establishing a branch campus in Malaysia.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Knight, J. (2015). Transnational education remodeled: Toward a common TNE framework and definitions. Journal of Studies in International Education, 20(1), 34-47.

‘Transnational education (TNE), interpreted as the mobility of education programs and providers between countries, has dramatically changed in scope and scale during the last decade. New actors, new partnerships, new modes of delivery, and new regulations are emerging. This has resulted in a proliferation of TNE terms and mass confusion in how they are used. The purpose of this article is to develop a common TNE framework of categories and definitions which can be used by both TNE sending and host countries. The framework needs to be robust enough to distinguish between different forms of TNE but flexible enough to be used by a wide range of institutions/countries around the world. Key elements common to twinning, franchise, joint/double/multiple degree programs as well as international branch campuses, cofounded institutions, franchise universities, and distance education are closely examined to ensure that the framework clearly differentiates between collaborative TNE and independent TNE modes of delivery. Much is at stake in terms of quality assurance, enrollment planning, policy/regulatory development, and the monitoring of trends if the proliferation and confusion among TNE terms continue. Different uses of the TNE framework are discussed, including the need for an internationally agreed-upon set of definitions as a precursor to developing an international protocol for worldwide collection of TNE data, similar to what United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) do for international student mobility.’

BOOK: Knight, J. (Ed.). (2014). International education hubs: Student, talent, knowledge-innovation models.. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.

‘Education hubs are the newest development in the international higher education landscape. Countries, zones and cities are trying to position themselves as reputed centres for higher education and research.

But given higher education’s current preoccupation with competitiveness, branding, and economic  benefits are education hubs merely a fad, a branding exercise, or are they an important innovation worthy of serious investment and attention?  This book tries to answer the question through a systematic and comparative analysis of the rationales, actors, policies, plans and accomplishments for six serious country level education hubs – United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Singapore and Botswana.

The in-depth case studies shows that “one size does not fit all”. A variety of factors drive countries to prepare and position themselves as an education hub. They include income generation, soft power, modernization of domestic tertiary education sector, economic competitiveness, need for trained work force, and most importantly a desire to move towards a knowledge or service based economy. In response to these different motivations, three different types of education hubs are being developed: the student hub, talent hub, and knowledge/innovation hub.

Scholars, policy makers, professionals, students and senior decision makers from education, economics, geography, public policy, trade, migration will find that this book challenges some assumptions about crossborder education and provides new insights and information.’

BOOK CHAPTER: Knight, J. (2014). Three generations of crossborder higher education: New developments, issues and challenges. In B. Streitwieser (Ed.), Internationalisation of higher education and global mobility (pp. 45-58). Oxford, UK: Symposium Books.

‘Internationalization is one of the major forces impacting and shaping higher education as it changes to meet the challenges of the twenty-first century. One aspect of internationalization which is particularly important and controversial is crossborder education. Academic mobility has moved from people (students, faculty, scholars) to program (twinning, franchise, MOOCs, virtual) and provider (branch campus, binational universities) mobility and now to the development of international education hubs. Crossborder education has gradually shifted from a development cooperation framework, to a partnership model, and now to a commercial and competitiveness model. The purpose of this chapter is to explore the rationales, score, and scale of the three generations of crossborder education. The first part examines how the multifaceted phenomenon of crossborder education relates to internationalization in general and provides a working definition. The three generations of crossborder education are analyzed in the second part so as to provide a basic understanding of program and provider mobility and the recent positioning of countries as education hubs. Attention is given to examining the rationales and perspectives of different stakeholders – students, foreign institutions and host country institutions. The last section discusses important emerging issues, challenges, and unintended consequences related to crossborder higher education.’

BOOK CHAPTER: Knight, J. (2006). Crossborder education: An analytical framework for program and provider mobility. In J.C. Smart (Ed.), Higher education: Handbook of theory and research, Vol. XXI (pp. 345-395). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.

This article presents a number of components that comprise an analytical framework for cross-border education. Included is a discussion of the relationship between cross-border ventures and current trends in globalization and internationalization. An analysis of the rationales for cross-border ventures and their impacts is included, along with a global survey of the current status of cross-border ventures by region. A typology of cross-border higher education ventures is presented. The typology categorizes cross-border ventures according to type of provider (recognized HEIs, commercial HEIs, etc.), mode of program mobility (franchise, twinning, joint degree, etc.), and mode of provider mobility (branch campus, teaching site, affiliation, etc.).

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Kosmützky, A., & Putty, R. (2015). Transcending borders and traversing boundaries: A systematic review of the literature on transnational, offshore, cross-border, and borderless higher education. Journal of Studies in International Education, 20(1), 8-33.

‘This article is a review of the literature concerned with transnational, offshore, cross-border, and borderless higher education, which together form a new thematic field within higher education research from the early 2000s onwards. The review places emphasis on the development of this field as well as its most cited contributions. The literature derives from the Database of Research on International Education, while the citation data comes from Google Scholar. The first section describes the growth of the field and its cognitive and institutional structure in terms of keywords, publication types, journals, and topic clusters. The second section provides a review of the most recognized work of this thematic area. Research related to the main themes studied under the label of transnational higher education is discussed. Finally, future directions for research, including methodological issues and substantive concerns, are addressed.’

REPORT: Kosmützky, A., & Krücken, G. (2014). Macro-environmental mapping of international branch campus activities of universities worldwide. University of California, Berkeley.

‘The United Arab Emirates is developing higher education institutions that will contribute to an educational sector providing premium degree programs. There was a belief that the recognition and achievements these institutions attained over decades in their native land would be transferable in the implementation of international branch campuses. This research project explores the sustainability of branch campuses in the UAE and determines the factors contributing to their demise, struggles, or initial success while examining their mission, vision, and strategic plan, asking: Can institutions be successfully imported into the UAE without adapting to their new social, cultural, and educational terrain?’

BOOK: McBurnie, G. & Ziguras, C. (2007). Transnational education: Issues and trends in offshore higher education. New York: Rutledge.

Ranging from business and managerial aspects to the host country ensuring quality through agreements and national strategy, McBurnie and Ziguras’ book positions key issues in regards to transnational education. Viewing transnational education from economic, political, cultural, technological, governmental, and university levels, the authors predict a slow increase in the transnational education market, and believe quality and accountability of off-shore institutions will become increasingly important. To minimize risk, the off-shoring campus and host country have three options on how they would like to set-up their cross-border distance education operation: distance, partner-supported, or branch campus. Although each style of operation has its own unique potential benefits and detriments, in general the off-shoring institution’s main concern is the success of the operation. Failure could potentially drain home-campus resources while success could enhance research opportunities and increase finances. The host country is mainly concerned about cultural imperialism and ensuring high-quality academic programs. By keeping cultural imperialism to a minimum and ensuring high academic quality, the host country might gain prestige in their region while attracting and retaining more international and domestic students, creating a knowledge-based economy. Success for the involved actors relies on the establishment of a strong and understood, mutually agreed upon contract, procedures, and policies.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Naidoo, V. (2008). Transnational higher education: A stock take of current activity. Journal of Studies in International Education, 13(3), 310-330.

Naidoo analyzed secondary data in a number of publications and reports, to assess the growth of transnational higher education (TNHE). The author notes that transnational higher education began over half a century ago and has transformed into a form of “academic trade.” Franchising, twinning degrees, program articulations, branch campuses, virtual/distance learning and corporate programs are listed as the various ways that transnational higher education is provided currently. Through the analysis, it is noted that concentration is in Eastern Europe, the Middle East, South America, and the Asian-Pacific region. The country analysis indicates that Australia exports more programs than any other country. However, most cross-border tertiary institutions that are wholly owned are from the United States followed closely by British institutions. The article notes that U.S. for-profit higher education institutions dominate the cross-border higher education landscape.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Naidoo, V. (2010). Transnational higher education: Why it happens and who benefits? International Higher Education, 58, 6-7.

Four rationales explain recent growth in transnational higher education. The Mutual Understanding perspective highlights the academic, cultural, social, and political bases for engaging in transnational programs. The Skilled Migration rationale emphasizes efforts to draw international students to source countries in order to increase the country’s skilled labor. Transnational programs feed students to a source country through transfer between branch and home campuses. Revenue Generation describes income-seeking as a motivation for transnational programs. Capacity Building views transnational education as a means of filling demand for higher education in receiving countries. Despite common perceptions that the benefits of transnational education accrue primarily to source countries, there are wide-ranging impacts that accrue to both receivers and senders.

REPORT: Verbik, L., & Merkley, C. (2006). The international branch campus – Models and trends. London: Observatory on Borderless Higher Education.

The 2007 report by OBHE provides information on three distinct models used by institutions establishing branch campuses. A branch campus designates an offshore “operation of a higher education institution run by the institution or as a joint venture.” Model A is fully funded by the institution and is less common than the other two models. Model B uses external funding from governments or private sources. The latest development, Model C, uses facilities provided by the host government and can be found most often in economically advanced countries in the Persian Gulf. Institutions appear to be increasingly reluctant to absorb the entire cost of establishing a branch campus (Model A). This has led to an increased use of Models B and C.

REPORT: Vincent-Lancrin, S. (2005). Building capacity through cross-border tertiary education. London: Observatory on Borderless Higher Education.

The use of education as a capacity-building, economic development tool is identified as a recent phenomena although little data exists regarding its effectiveness. Cross-border tertiary education (where students, teachers, programs, and institutional providers cross national borders) takes several forms. In some instances, partnering with foreign institutions offers an opportunity to offer joint programs or degrees. Other examples of tertiary cross border education involve distance learning. All forms are currently delivered under a variety of contractual arrangements. The report contains guidelines to be used by countries seeking to benefit from cross-border education. An extensive bibliography concludes the report.

Africa

C-BERT has identified few references pertaining to this subject heading. To suggest a reference, please email us at global.highereducation@gmail.com.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Amaral, A., Tavares, O., Cardoso, S., & Sin, C. (2015). Shifting institutional boundaries through cross-border higher education. Journal of Studies in International Education, 20(1), 48-60.

‘Cross-border higher education (CBHE) has been changing the organizational boundaries of higher education institutions (HEIs). This study aims to analyze the shifting boundaries of Portuguese HEIs through the lens of the identity concept in organization theories, considering three contexts with different levels of regulation: African Portuguese-speaking countries, Brazil, and Europe. These different regulation contexts allow to analyze how the level of national regulation influences CBHE, how this relates to the shifting boundaries of HEIs, and how the public or private character of the institutions plays a role in influencing boundary shifts. This research indicates that shifting boundaries through CBHE are influenced by institutional identities shaped by different rationales and conditioned by local policy contexts. Public universities have refrained from creating campuses abroad or from franchising activities, and their international activities seem driven by academic and cultural rationales. Public polytechnics, more recent than universities, seem more open to embarking on CBHE, suggesting the existence of a malleable identity. Contrary to the public sector, private institutions have created campuses abroad, mainly in African Portuguese-speaking countries, apparently following an economic rationale to guide their CBHE activities.’

REPORT: Observatory on Borderless Higher Education (2009). Allez-y? France’s latest transnational education initiatives to increase its market share in North Africa and the Middle East. London: Observatory on Borderless Higher Education.

This report discusses several French higher education initiatives in North Africa and the Middle East. Because of past colonial collections, French institutions have a number of long-standing collaborations in the region, which include dual degree programs, research partnerships, and staff mobility programs, but no full-fledged branch campuses at the writing of the report. Paris-Dauphine University is scheduled to open France’s first international branch campus in Tunisia in September 2009, with Bachelor’s and Master’s programs in economics, management, and law.

The Middle East and North Africa have received attention from French business schools who view them as a way to make up for a stagnant domestic economy. As well, French companies in the region are increasingly relying on native staff rather than expatriates, so there is a growing market for native workers with French qualifications. French business schools agree that Morocco is the most reasonable location for transnational education in North Africa, and there is the possibility that Casablanca may become a business education hub for francophone Africa. The Middle East has also received attention from French institutions as a promising center for student exchange and institutional partnerships. French institutions are also recruiting international students to come to France from a wide range of countries.

Asia

REPORT: Agarwal, P. (2007). Private higher education in India: Status and prospects. London: Observatory on Borderless Higher Education.

This report describes the history, current status, and growth of private higher education in India, including foreign providers, professional programs, and distance learning. The report contains a detailed assessment of the policy environment facing private higher education. An overview of the Indian higher education system, including structure, financing, and regulation, is also included.

Expansion of private higher education in India has grown out of a need to increase the capacity of the higher education system in an environment where increases in public funding are not feasible. Trends suggest that private and foreign provision of higher education will continue to grow in India. The author calls for improved policies and a regulatory environment that supports private higher education and foreign providers and integrates them into the Indian higher education system.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Altbach, P.G. (2009). India: The inevitable consequences of the open door in higher education. International Higher Education, 56, 6-8.

This article criticizes the effort of Kapil Sibal – the Indian minister of human resource development – to open India’s higher education market to foreign universities. Altbach asserts that foreign involvement in Indian higher education will not help to improve the country’s higher education system, as Sibal hopes it will. In other countries, many foreign providers have had a focus on quick profit and have provided substandard education, while other providers have come from the middle or lower tiers of prestige in their home countries. A few top universities may be interested in India as a source of revenue, as a way of establishing long-term relationships with India’s best institutions, and as a foundation for recruiting the best Indian students and faculty. Altbach notes that several East Asian countries have had positive experiences with foreign education because they have clear regulations, tight control over entrants, control over terms and conditions of operation, and willingness to eject those who do not meet the standards. Reference is made to the experiences of Israel, China, Singapore, Korea, and Japan.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Bhushan, S. (2005). Foreign universities in India: Market-driven new directions. International Higher Education, 41, 4-5.

The growing demand for foreign degrees, as well as the supply constraint of public higher education in India, has opened the market for private providers of higher education. The majority of providers come from UK and US universities, with about 80 percent of the programs being in Business Management and Hotel Management. Twinning arrangements have been the preferred method for foreign institutions as 50 institutions have offered programs through such arrangements. This growing demand and India’s lack of governmental regulation of foreign universities has created a quality issue with transnational higher education institutions.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Cao, Y. (2011). Branch campuses in Asia and the Pacific: Definitions, challenges and strategies. Comparative & International Higher Education, 3, 8-10.

‘The Asia-Pacific Region stands at the forefront of cross-border education. Many new developments have emerged not only in countries which are traditionally identified as education service-receiving or importing countries, such as Malaysia, Singapore, China, Thailand, India and Vietnam, but also in exporting countries such as Australia and New Zealand (Knight 2007). As transnational education becomes increasingly popular, the line between importing and exporting countries blurs. For example, Singapore is also actively engaged in exporting education services to Australia, China, Malaysia, Thailand, UK, and Canada. China has in- creased cross-border education to Thailand. India’s higher education sector has been aggressively involved in both importing and exporting programs and services (Altbach and Knight 2006). New Zealand is both a receiving and sending country of cross-border education.’

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Chan, D., Ng, P.T. (2008). Developing transnational higher education: Comparing the approaches of Hong Kong and Singapore. International Journal of Educational Reform, 17(3), 291-307.

This article compares the approaches of Hong Kong and Singapore in attracting transnational education providers by examining the development of transnational education along five dimensions: goals; business approach; culture; process; and resources. The authors find that while Hong Kong and Singapore share a common goal of becoming a regional education hub, they vary in the other dimensions. Hong Kong has a liberal free market approach with institutions operating relatively independently from government and without government resources. In contrast, Singapore has a detailed strategy for transnational education development with close regulation of foreign universities and the offer of financial incentives to attract top foreign universities.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Debowski, S. (2005). Across the divide: Teaching a transnational MBA in a second language. Higher Education Research & Development, 24(3), 265-280.

China represents a growing market for transnational programs, but many challenges exist for schools that seek to offer high-quality learning in a cost effective manner. Bi-lingual programs are especially challenged to establish an effective teaching/learning environment when teaching involves the use of translators. Especially difficult is monitoring learning outcomes. The paper identifies some ways in which teaching staff can be supported. Universities that attempt to teach with the use of translators should be cautious before they venture into this complex educational setting.

ESSAY: (2007). Fazackerley, A. (Ed.). British universities in China: The reality behind the rhetoric. London: Agora – The Forum for Culture and Education.

Agora holds the position that UK universities are rushing into Chinese ventures without a clear understanding of how UK universities can benefit in the short- and long-terms. The think tank advocates for a more careful examination of the relationship between UK universities and the terrain and development trajectory of Chinese higher education. The report calls into question the logic of entering the Chinese education market. Reports are compiled from leaders in UK-China partnerships reflecting on the difficulties of operating in the Chinese environment. Case studies of ventures of Liverpool University, Nottingham-Ningbo, and Queen Mary, University of London are included.

Contents:
Introduction – Anna Fazackerley
Removing the Rose-Tinted Spectacles – Professor Ian Gow
Building Relationships, Not Assets – Dr. David Pilsbury
Navigating the Legalities – Andrew Halper
Overseas Campuses: the Management Perspective – Professor Michael Shattock
Bridging the Cultural Chasm – Dr. Helen Spencer-Oatey
Understanding Student Needs – Professor Rebecca Hughes
Case Study 1: Liverpool, the Stand-Alone University
Case Study 2: Nottingham-Ningbo, the Overseas Campus
Case Study 3: Queen Mary, UoL, the Joint Degree Programme

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Feng, Y. (2013). University of Nottingham Ningbo China and Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University: globalization of higher education in China. Higher Education, 65(4), 471-485.

‘This essay studies the University of Nottingham Ningbo China and Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University—the two Chinese campuses established respectively by the University of Nottingham and the University of Liverpool. They represent successful models of globalization of higher education in China; however their rationale, strategies, curricula, partnership, and orientation are very different. Through a comparative analysis, the paper reveals their unique development and offers a template for studies of globalization of higher education in China and elsewhere through branch campuses.’

REPORT: Feng, G. & Gong, S. (2006). Sino-foreign joint education ventures: A national, regional, and institutional analysis. London: Observatory on Borderless Higher Education.

The article tracks the rapid expansion in the early 2000’s of joint Sino-Foreign partnerships. In particular, there is a new kind of institution, the “state-owned privately-run college” that grants nationally recognized degrees, but is administered by a foreign partner. The article examines this phenomenon from national, regional, and institutional perspectives, and presents a plethora of enrollment and financial data.

Regulation is the most important factor governing joint education ventures, since foreign institutions must form partnerships with Chinese institutions in order to legally operate in the country.

In terms of markets, there are three sectors: the traditional sector, which caters to recent high school graduates, the adult sector, and a “self-study examination system.” In the last sector, open examinations are held and any student that can pass them is granted a nationally recognized diploma. Most students in private schools must pass these tests, which places a constraint on private institutions. The tests are quite rigorous, and the authors present data that shows a substantial gap between the number of test takers and graduates. This constitutes a “loose-entry-strict-exit” model, which the authors assert will become the dominant model as HE expands in China.

In recent years, the government has sought to curb enrollments, as there is a surplus of graduates relative to job openings. Enrollments in private colleges have been decreasing, in part by government policies and in part due to rapidly rising tuition and fees.

The authors provide a robust analysis of the quality control initiatives in the Shanghai province, and conclude by asserting that, despite the new regulations, it is clear that joint programs will increase in the near future.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Garrett, R. (2005). The rise and fall of transnational higher education in Singapore. International Higher Education, 39, 9-10.

Garrett argues that the “golden age” of transnational education in Singapore may be coming to an end. Two factors are driving the demise. First, the population is becoming older, and the number of traditional aged students is declining. Second, as a policy goal, the Singaporean government is increasing the number of home-grown higher education options through expansion of public universities, creating a national open university, and offering university status to selected private Singaporean universities. From the government’s perspective, international institutions were seen as a bridge, providing access and mentoring local institutions to increase quality. Now that the bridging period is drawing to a close, Singaporean higher education will be encouraged to expand its role. There will still be room for niche branch campuses of elite foreign providers (Chicago, MIT, etc.), but the era of broad based delivery may be drawing to a close.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Healey, N.M. (2016). The challenges of leading an international branch campus: The ‘lived experience’ of in-country senior managers. Journal of Studies in International Education, 20(1), 61-78.

‘In recent years, an increasing number of major universities have set up international branch campuses (IBCs). There are now over 200 IBCs, with more under development. Little is known about the unique challenges that face IBC managers, who are normally seconded from the home university to set up and operate the satellite campus in a new and alien environment. At the same time, there are significant financial and reputational risks for the home university should an IBC fail. This paper reports the results of a qualitative study into the ‘lived experiences’ of IBC managers working in the three largest host markets for IBCs – China, Malaysia and the United Arab Emirates. It finds that the fundamental challenge for managers is balancing the competing demands of a range of internal and external stakeholders and concludes that universities need to do more to prepare and support IBC managers.’

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Huang, F. (2007). Internationalization of higher education in the developing and emerging countries: A focus on transnational higher education in Asia. Journal of Studies in International Education, 11(3/4), 421-432.

This article categorizes Asian transnational higher education according to three types: Import-Oriented; Import & Export; and Transitional. Vietnam and Indonesia import education, while Singapore and Hong Kong both import and export higher education. China and Japan are transitional countries that predominantly import foreign higher education but also export higher education to a small degree. A variety of national policies and strategies exist in Asia, ranging from government regulated to market driven. Huang argues that Asia is the most important and active region for transnational higher education. As transnational higher education grows and is increasingly supported, it is forming an integral component of national higher education in many Asian countries.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Kelly, M.E., & Tak, S.H. (1998). Borderless education and teaching and learning cultures: The case of Hong Kong. Australian Universities’ Review, 41(1), 26-33.

This article challenges stereotypes of Asian learners favoring rote memorization; relying on content rather than argument; being reluctant to challenge, discuss, or critique; and expecting the teacher to deliver “correct” answers. Research suggests that while Asian students engage in memorization, they do so to gain deeper understanding rather than as the end goal of education. Stereotypes of authoritarian Asian teachers are challenged when considering the mentoring relationships that occur outside class and the individualized instruction that Asian teachers provide. When teaching across cultural borders it cannot be assumed that Asian students will adapt to Western teaching styles. Cultural borders must be considered alongside political, economic, and regulatory borders when designing and implementing cross-border higher education programs.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Lee, M. (2003). International linkages in Malaysian private higher education. International Higher Education, 30, 17-19.

This article outlines the types of international linkages found in private higher education in Malaysia. When private higher education was established in Malaysia in the 1990s, many providers did not have the expertise to design curricula, nor were they allowed to confer degrees. For these reasons, many private providers established linkages with foreign universities.

Accredited programs are structured such that program curricula, syllabi, and exams are created by the foreign institution with the local provider teaching the curricula and administering professional examinations without further oversight from the foreign institution. Such programs may lead to a formal credential awarded by the foreign institution, which may be a university or a professional or trade organization. Twinning programs have a similar structure for curriculum design and delivery, but with foreign institutions having an active presence in Malaysia to monitor and ensure quality. Private providers pay fees or royalties to the foreign institution in return for their involvement in country. Students who complete the Malaysian portion of the program are guaranteed transfer admission to the foreign institution. Credit transfer programs are arrangements under which students can earn credits at a private institution in Malaysia which may then be transferred to an institution abroad if the student is admitted. Distance education and foreign branch campuses are also present in Malaysia.

BOOK CHAPTER: Lee, M.N.N. (2007). Cross-border higher education and quality assurance in Asia-Pacific. In Global University Network for Innovation (Ed.), Higher education in the world 2007: Accreditation for quality assurance: What is at stake? (pp. 146-148). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Lee indicates that provision of cross-border higher education in Asia-Pacific has been influenced by policies of governments, parents and student requests for foreign education. Asians constitute about 70 percent of students studying in the United States, United Kingdom and Australia. According to the author, 20 Asian states have ratified a UNESCO Regional Convention on the Recognition of Qualifications. This makes it imperative on member states to recognize degrees either for employment or further education. However, the issue of quality was not addressed in this regional convention.

To address this deficiency in the Asia-Pacific region, a joint effort by UNESCO Bangkok and the Asia-Pacific Quality Network (APN) resulted in the UNESCO-APN Toolkit: Regulating the Quality of Cross-Border Higher Education in 2006. A major objective of this provision emphasizes quality in cross-border higher education and the establishment of quality assurance mechanisms. It also provided the needed guidance in establishing regulatory frameworks governing quality, as well as samples of regulations in exporting and importing countries of higher education.

BOOK CHAPTER: McBurnie, G. (2002). Transnational education, quality, and the public good: Case studies from South-East Asia. In S. Uvalic-Trumbic (Ed.), Globalization and the market in higher education. Quality, accreditation, and qualifications (pp. 159-170). Paris: UNESCO.

McBurnie examines public benefits of transnational education in East Asia, including contributions to local economies. Transnational education has contributed to educational capacity in East Asia by increasing student enrollments. Legislative instruments are in place to prevent public funds from being used for transnational education. In Malaysia, students’ rights are protected through legislation to prevent sub-standard courses. Information on courses is provided to transnational educators. To ensure optimum quality, transnational course offerings undergo accreditation in home countries before they are offered in the importing country. McBurnie notes that the state has a powerful role in ensuring quality.

NEWS REPORT: McNeill, D. (2008, March 21). South Korea seeks a new role as a higher education hub. The Chronicle of Higher Education.

To stem the growing number of students studying abroad, the government of South Korea in 2007 developed a 52,000 acre Free Economic Zone in Incheon, tagged to be a place for prestigious research and higher education institutions. A major objective of this venture is to attract students in the Asian sub-region. Some of the American institutions that have “signed agreements” to commence research and degree programs in South Korea include State University of New York at Stony Brook. In addition a South Korean institution, Korean Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), has programs to retain students and bring in more foreign professors and students. But for South Korea to make its tertiary education system fully international, it will have to compete with Thailand, Malaysia and China for students. South Korea could “attract” more international students in courses it dominates in the industrial realm.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Mok, K.H. & Xu, X. (2008). When China opens to the world: A study of transnational higher education in Zhejiang, China. Asia Pacific Education Review, 9(4), 393-408.

The economic growth of China has engendered rapid advancements in science as well as information technology. As a result, the higher education sector in China has been undergoing a process of transformation to meet the challenge of a knowledge based economy. To meet the challenges of this change, the Chinese government has begun to allow overseas universities to offer educational programs. This article examines the policy context of allowing transnational higher education in China with special references to how these foreign programs would affect Chinese higher education.

CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS: Naylor, S., & Hasson, S. (2012). James Cook University’s strategy to engage with the region through the development of a Singapore campus: Re-imaging the tropics. Proceedings from the Australian International Education Conference (AIEC) 2012, International Education in the Asian Century.

‘The following paper provides a single longitudinal case study of an organisation that has employed strategy, policy and even procurement of space, within the tropical zone, in order to achieve its goals, of teaching & learning and research which are grounded in a sense of place. Much of the data has been gleaned from a literature review, interviews with key stakeholders and additional selected documents held by the University. All other information in this paper is supported by observational data. Whilst this paper does not seek to break new ground within the transnational education industry, it does attempt to provide a case study offering comparative data for other approaches and initiatives in higher education. While the paper makes reference to nine years of operation in Singapore, it is by no means a complete story. The final phase in embedding the strategic initiatives are currently being realised through a Tri-Campus Integration Strategy, where staff from all campuses contribute to an alignment of policies and procedures aimed at making one University in two Countries on three Campuses located in Townsville, Cairns and Singapore.’

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Nguyen, T.D. (2009). Signal quality and service quality: A study of local and international MBA programs in Vietnam. Quality Assurance in Education, 17(4), 364-376.

Nguyen investigates the relationship between the quality of MBA programs in Vietnam and the programs’ representations of quality through marketing signals. The author describes students as operating in an environment of asymmetric information in which they have difficulty assessing program quality and suggests that high quality signals will result in perceptions of high quality among students. Mixed methods were used in this study; the qualitative phase consisted of interviews with four MBA program managers and two student focus groups. Qualitative interviews aided the development of measurement constructs used in the quantitative phase of the study. In the quantitative phase, 459 students were surveyed through face to face interviews using a seven point Likert-type scale. Of the students interviewed, 257 were enrolled in local Vietnamese programs and 199 were enrolled in international programs operating in Vietnam. Results indicate positive relationships between signal quality and perceived quality, perceived quality and program loyalty, program investments and signal quality, and program investments and signal quality. No significant differences were found between students in domestic and international programs. Furthermore, Nguyen finds that high quality signals are related to investment in the program and that quality signals are marked by clarity, consistency, and credibility.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Olds, K. (2007). Global assemblage: Singapore, foreign universities, and the construction of a “global education hub”. World Development, 35(6), 959-975.

The need for enhanced services and a better educated and more skilled citizenry has led to the elevation of principles of life-long learning, creativity, innovation, entrepreneurship, and critical thinking in Singapore. To transform Singapore into the “Boston of the East,” foreign higher education institutions have been viewed as playing a fundamental role in restructuring the economy. Utilizing foreign institutions will assist Singapore in creating a knowledge hub in which a confluence of people and ideas provide an incubator for innovation.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Rizvi, F. (2004). Offshore Australian higher education. International Higher Education, 37, 7-9.

Rizvi examines cross-border education provided by Australian higher education institutions. He notes that Australia is the most “innovative” and “aggressive” in the provision of cross-border education. He notes that within a span of twelve years Australia’s offshore institutions have increased from 25 to 1,600 (from 1991 to 2003). The Australian institutions regard these programs as “additional sources of revenue.” On the other hand, the captive student population also regards it as an affordable way of obtaining Australian higher education. Over 85 percent of students in these institutions are in China, Malaysia and Singapore and they total over 70,000. The Australian government also regards this off-shore education as very significant in promoting its “political and economic interests” in the Asia-Pacific region. Thus it has been very vocal in advocating for the application of the General Agreement on Trade and Services (GATS) to educational services. To make these programs more profitable, most Australian higher education institutions have “franchised” their educational programs to institutions in the importing country and teaching has been restricted to local professors. In other arrangements Australian professors travel to these offshore campuses and teach intensely for about two weeks. Some challenges that these cross-border educational institutions have include “high turnover of faculty interested in this kind of work,” ambiguous regulations governing joint venture agreements, “dilemma” in dealing with private for-profit institutions offshore, and Australian higher education institutions falling short in maintaining the quality of these offshore programs since they are self-accrediting.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Shams, F., & Huisman, J. (2016). The role of institutional dual embeddedness in the strategic local adaptation of international branch campuses: evidence from Malaysia and Singapore. Studies in Higher Education, 41(6), 955-970.

‘Past research revealed that International Branch Campuses (IBCs) are simultaneously under two types of isomorphic pressures. On the one hand, they are obliged to conform to the institutions of their host countries, which lead them towards homogenising with the local Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), hence deviate from their parent unit’s model. On the other hand, they are required to maintain their parent unit’s identity across borders. By adapting to the local context, IBCs gain legitimacy in their local milieus and thus reduce tensions with local stakeholders. By maintaining similarity with their parents, they differentiate from the local competitors and therefore better compete in the market place. This paper addresses the duality (between adherence to the parent’s and local expectations) by studying six important Australian and British IBCs in two major higher education (HE) hubs in South East Asia. We identify the determinants of the IBCs’ strategic choices and their responses to institutional pressures. The analysis suggests that IBCs have maintained a high level of similarity with their parent units in terms of curriculum, but not so much in terms of staffing. We argue that staffing will continue to be the biggest strategic challenge faced by IBCs.’

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Sidhu, R.K., & Christie, P. (2014). Transnational higher education as a hybrid global/local space: A case study of a Malaysian-Australian joint venture. Journal of Sociology, 51(2), 299-316.

‘One aspect of transnational education that is anticipated to grow in prominence is the international branch campus. This article is a case study of Monash University Malaysia, a Malaysian-Australian transnational education alliance which has achieved a measure of success in a field fraught with risk. It offers an analysis of the dynamic interplay between global processes and the logics of practice of situated national and institutional interests. The article shows that global processes such as marketization are realized in specifically local conditions. The joint venture was able to find its market in the particular configurations of the Malaysian postcolonial state, ethno-nationalism and neoliberalization.’

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Wilmoth, D. (2004). RMIT Vietnam and Vietnam’s development: Risk and responsibility. Journal of Studies in International Education, 8(2), 186-206.

To bridge the gap between demand and supply, Vietnam has opened the country to foreign providers, with the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) International University Vietnam becoming the first foreign institution to offer higher education to the Vietnamese. RMIT relies on fees, so its programs must be effective and affordable. Operating a campus near Ho Chi Minh City, RMIT is under pressure to demonstrate that higher education provided by a foreign institution is sustainable. To establish itself socially and culturally, RMIT has established local projects, provided scholarships, and assisted local universities in capacity building activities.

BOOK CHAPTER: Ziguras, C., & McBurnie, G. (2011). Transnational higher education in the Asia-Pacific region: From distance education to the branch campus. In S. Marginson, S. Kaur, & E. Sawir (Eds.), Higher education in the Asia-Pacific: Strategic responses to globalization (pp. 105-122). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.

‘The Asia-Pacific Region stands at the forefront of cross-border education. Many new developments have emerged not only in countries which are traditionally identified as education service-receiving or importing countries, such as Malaysia, Singapore, China, Thailand, India and Vietnam, but also in exporting countries such as Australia and New Zealand (Knight 2007). As transnational education becomes increasingly popular, the line between importing and exporting countries blurs. For example, Singapore is also actively engaged in exporting education services to Australia, China, Malaysia, Thailand, UK, and Canada. China has in- creased cross-border education to Thailand. India’s higher education sector has been aggressively involved in both importing and exporting programs and services (Altbach and Knight 2006). New Zealand is both a receiving and sending country of cross-border education.’

Australia

REPORT: Auditor General Victoria (2002). Report on public sector agencies, Part 2 – Education and training.

This report presents information on the subsidiary units and joint ventures of public universities in Victoria, Australia.  The eight public universities in Victoria operate 91 subsidiary units, 16 associated entities, 11 joint ventures, and 33 other commercial ventures. A 65% increase in subsidiary units was observed from 1999 to 2001. Descriptive information is provided regarding the ways that universities structure, govern, and report these ventures. Overall, subsidiary entities were found not to be profitable, with many universities underwriting the economic losses.

Case studies are included of Monash University’s ventures in South Africa in Malaysia as well as RMIT University’s ventures in Malaysia and Vietnam. The Monash University enterprise in South Africa is heavily financed and primarily owned by the university; actual student enrollments have fallen short of projections. Monash University in Malaysia is operated as a joint venture with a Malaysian firm having majority ownership. The royalties Monash receives for its academic services are sufficient to cover its costs. In 1996, RMIT opened a campus in Malaysia through a joint venture with a Malaysian company that bore most of the financial risk. The venture folded in 1999 due to the financial difficulties faced by the Malaysian partner as well as a shortfall of enrolled students. Due to the structural and financial arrangement, the university’s losses were relatively low. In 2000, RMIT opened a campus in Vietnam. Funding was secured from a variety of sources, including donations and loans, with the university’s liability limited to $12.9 million (Australian dollars). The university expects to be profitable by 2007, but at the writing of the report it was too early to determine if profit projections would be met.

BOOK CHAPTER: McBurnie, G., & Pollock, A. (2000). Decision making for offshore activities: A case study on Monash University. In D. Davis, A. Olsen & A. Bohm (Eds.), Transnational education providers, partners and policy: Challenges for Australian institutions offshore. Canberra: IDP Education Australia.

Using a case study of Monash University, this chapter describes how institutions make decisions about establishing overseas programs. Strategic, educational and business components of decision-making are explored. The strategic component is influenced by the university’s teaching, research and service functions. Country selection depends on the compatibility of educational philosophy with host country infrastructure. The educational component ensures that programs match the institution’s academic goals. The business component involves assessing rewards and risks, which vary between centrally-driven and departmentally-based program proposals. Centrally driven proposals involving the entire university campus have high costs and departmental proposals are less expensive. Market research is conducted to determine whether an offshore program is cost effective.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Wilmoth, D. (2004). RMIT Vietnam and Vietnam’s development: Risk and responsibility. Journal of Studies in International Education, 8(2), 186-206.

To bridge the gap between demand and supply, Vietnam has opened the country to foreign providers, with the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) International University Vietnam becoming the first foreign institution to offer higher education to the Vietnamese. RMIT relies on fees, so its programs must be effective and affordable. Operating a campus near Ho Chi Minh City, RMIT is under pressure to demonstrate that higher education provided by a foreign institution is sustainable. To establish itself socially and culturally, RMIT has established local projects, provided scholarships, and assisted local universities in capacity building activities.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Ziguras, C., Reinke, L., & McBurnie, G. (2003). ’Hardly neutral players’: Australia’s role in liberalizing trade in education services. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 1(3), 359-374.

Education is a major export for Australia and is publicly referred to as an “industry” as well as a “sector.” Unlike the United States and Canada, Australia has pursued the expansion of its transnational education services and demonstrated that it considers this “sector” to be a viable, market-oriented product. The Australian government has made changes to its education regulations to encourage free trade in education while also assuring that issues such as quality and consumer protection are not ignored.

Canada

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Central & Eastern Europe

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REPORT: Adam, S. (2003). The recognition, treatment, experience and implications of transnational education in Central and Eastern Europe 2002-2003. Stockholm: Swedish National Agency for Higher Education.

This report of the Swedish National Agency for Higher Education includes country profiles of the state of transnational education in Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia. An overview of the global state of transnational education finds that increasing demand for higher education throughout Asia draws much of the current transnational higher education activity. Debates about the inclusion of education services in the General Agreement of Trade in Services (GATS) highlight the tension between commercialization of education and quality assurance, which are concerns that emanate from students, faculty, and education associations. Higher education in the Central and Eastern European regions faces conditions that are distinct from those of Western Europe, including fast growth of private higher education, introduction of accreditation and quality assurance measures, increased institutional autonomy, severe financial constraints, brain drain, and low faculty salaries. Discussion is included regarding the perceptions of risks, benefits, and opportunities of transnational education, as well as the ways that GATS and the Bologna Process bear on the changing dynamics between states, higher education institutions, and supranational organizations. The report includes a summary table categorizing each country’s transnational education activity according to the four GATS modes (cross border supply, consumption abroad, commercial presence, and presence of persons).

Countries covered: Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia.

Also includes information on transnational education in: Denmark, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and the UK.

Central & South America

C-BERT has identified few references pertaining to this subject heading. To suggest a reference, please email us at global.highereducation@gmail.com.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Amaral, A., Tavares, O., Cardoso, S., & Sin, C. (2015). Shifting institutional boundaries through cross-border higher education. Journal of Studies in International Education, 20(1), 48-60.

‘Cross-border higher education (CBHE) has been changing the organizational boundaries of higher education institutions (HEIs). This study aims to analyze the shifting boundaries of Portuguese HEIs through the lens of the identity concept in organization theories, considering three contexts with different levels of regulation: African Portuguese-speaking countries, Brazil, and Europe. These different regulation contexts allow to analyze how the level of national regulation influences CBHE, how this relates to the shifting boundaries of HEIs, and how the public or private character of the institutions plays a role in influencing boundary shifts. This research indicates that shifting boundaries through CBHE are influenced by institutional identities shaped by different rationales and conditioned by local policy contexts. Public universities have refrained from creating campuses abroad or from franchising activities, and their international activities seem driven by academic and cultural rationales. Public polytechnics, more recent than universities, seem more open to embarking on CBHE, suggesting the existence of a malleable identity. Contrary to the public sector, private institutions have created campuses abroad, mainly in African Portuguese-speaking countries, apparently following an economic rationale to guide their CBHE activities.’

Development Perspectives

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Girdzijauskaite, E., & Radzeviciene, A. (2014). International branch campus: Framework and strategy. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 110, 301-308.

‘Internationalisation of higher education institutions (HEIs) is considered to be a top priority in institutional strategy development. Institutions are enhancing internationalisation to increase the quality of education and research, to expand the scope of these activities, to overcome the rivals, position themselves internationally, and diversify the income. The business models are increasingly transferred into HE practices. An international branch campus is one of the most risky and unexplored entry modes to international markets in higher education and the topic of interest around the globe, however little knowledge has been gathered about this internationalisation mode. The aim of this paper is to elaborate on the motives and rationales of establishing a branch campus abroad, and discuss this strategy as a way to create international presence of the HEI.’

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Knight, J. (2011). Education hubs: A fad, a brand, an innovation?. Journal of Studies in International Education, 15(3), 221-240.

‘The last decade has seen significant changes in all aspects of internationalization but most dramatically in the area of education and research moving across national borders. The most recent developments are education hubs. The term education hub is being used by countries who are trying to build a critical mass of local and foreign actors—including students, education institutions, companies, knowledge industries, science and technology centers—who, thorough interaction and in some cases colocation, engage in education, training, knowledge production, and innovation initiatives. It is understood that countries have different objectives, priorities, and take different approaches to developing themselves as a reputed center for higher education excellence, expertise, and economy. However, given higher education’s current preoccupation with competitiveness, global branding, and rankings, one is not sure whether a country’s plan to develop itself as an education hub is a fad, the latest branding strategy, or in fact, an innovation worthy of investment and serious attention. This article reviews and compares the developments in six countries which claim to be an education hub. It explores the meaning of education hub, introduces a working definition, and proposes a typology of three kinds of education hubs as follows: student hub, skilled work force hub, and knowledge/innovation hub. Furthermore, it identifies issues requiring further research and reflection on whether hubs are a fad, a brand or an innovation worthy of serious attention and investment.’

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Lien, D. (2008). Economic analysis of transnational education. Education Economics, 16(2), 149-166.

Lien examines the impact of foreign branch campuses on the economic welfare of developing countries. Lower ranked foreign branch campuses have greater value to a developing country than highly ranked institutions because graduates from branches of highly ranked institutions have opportunities to emigrate for higher incomes, thereby increasing brain drain. Graduates from lower-ranked branch campuses may not command high salaries through emigration, and thus limit brain drain and enhance the social welfare of the developing country.

REPORT: Middlehurst, R., & Woodfield, S. (2004). The role of transnational, private, and for-profit provision in meeting global demand for tertiary education: Mapping, regulation and impact. Vancouver: Commonwealth of Learning & Paris: UNESCO.

This report maps transnational, private, and for-profit tertiary education in Jamaica, Bangladesh, Malaysia, and Bulgaria. Demand for tertiary education is increasing in all sample countries. Increased demand often results from increasing per capita income, improvements in primary and secondary education, and inflexible supply from the public system. Countries had similar goals for widening tertiary education, including increasing access, increasing economic relevance of education, improving quality, enhancing science and technology, and stimulating national identity. Despite similarities, there were subtle differences between countries.

BOOK: OECD (2007). Cross-border tertiary education: A way towards capacity development. Paris: OECD.

This book analyzes cross-border higher education’s potential to contribute to host countries’ development. Jane Knight examines cross-border higher education’s growth and complexity; terminology; diversity of providers; program and institutional typologies; rationales and impact; and emerging issues and challenges. Stephan Vincent-Lancrin discusses the reasons for building higher education capacity; incorporation of cross-border education into development strategy; potential contributions of capacity building to higher education; and the complementarity of trade and development assistance in cross-border higher education. Richard Hopper examines the challenge of building capacity in quality assurance, including quality assurance complexities and ideal versus manageable systems. Massimo Geloso-Grosso focuses on developing capacity in tertiary education through trade liberalization, investment, regulation and remedial policies, higher education services, and the GATS.

BOOK: Vincent-Lancrin, S. (2005). Building capacity through cross-border tertiary education. London: Observatory on Borderless Higher Education.

The use of education as a capacity-building and economic development tool is a recent phenomenon with little data regarding its effectiveness. In some cases, partnering with foreign institutions offers an opportunity for joint programs or degrees. Other examples of tertiary cross-border education involve distance learning. All forms are currently delivered under a variety of contractual arrangements. The report contains guidelines to be used by countries seeking to benefit from cross-border education.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Wilkins, S., & Huisman, J. (2012). The international branch campus as transnational strategy in higher education. Higher Education, 64(5), 627-645.

‘The international branch campus is a phenomenon on the rise, but we still have limited knowledge of the strategic choices underlying the start of these ventures. The objective of this paper is to shed light on the motivations and decisions of universities to engage (or not) with the establishment of international branch campuses. As a point of departure, institutional theory has been selected to frame the potential motives for starting an international branch campus. Secondary literature, including professional journals and university reports and websites, has been analysed to obtain information that alludes to the motivations of universities for adopting particular strategies. It was found that university managements’ considerations can be explained by the concepts of legitimacy, status, institutional distance, risk-taking, risk-avoidance and the desire to secure new sources of revenue. We argue that universities should avoid decisions that are based largely on a single dimension, such as legitimacy, but rather consider a broad spectrum of motivations and considerations.’

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Wilmoth, D. (2004). RMIT Vietnam and Vietnam’s development: Risk and responsibility. Journal of Studies in International Education, 8(2), 186-206.

To bridge the gap between demand and supply, Vietnam has opened the country to foreign providers, with the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) International University Vietnam becoming the first foreign institution to offer higher education to the Vietnamese. RMIT relies on fees, so its programs must be effective and affordable. Operating a campus near Ho Chi Minh City, RMIT is under pressure to demonstrate that higher education provided by a foreign institution is sustainable. To establish itself socially and culturally, RMIT has established local projects, provided scholarships, and assisted local universities in capacity building activities.

Management

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Chalmers, I. (2011). International branch campuses and unique risk considerations. URMIA Journal, 33-39.

‘A very unique set of considerations may influence the ability of an international branch campus to meet its objectives and attain long-term success. After briefly examining the context-dependent nature of a branch campus, this article outlines examples of unique risks that may affect a branch campus’ operations. Finally, readers will review the valuable input that home campuses and other collaborators can provide in managing the operations of international branch campuses.’

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Dunworth, K. (2008). Ideas and realities: Investigating good practice in the management of transnational English language programmes for the higher education sector. Quality in Higher Education, 14(2), 95-107.

This study investigates the management of transnational English language teaching programs to identify best practices and factors influencing their implementation. Interviews and document analysis were conducted for three sites in Indonesia and Mauritius. Findings indicate that best practices include: both partners undertaking due diligence and including all stakeholders; both partners familiarizing themselves with the cultural and educational context of the host country; and programs receiving adequate resources to maintain program quality.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Edwards, R., Crosling, G., & Lim, N. (2014). Organizational structures for international universities: Implications for campus autonomy academic freedom, collegiality, and conflict. Journal of Studies in International Education, 18(2), 180-194.

‘One significant form of transnational higher education is the International Branch Campus (IBC), in effect an “outpost” of the parent institution located in another country. Its organizational structure is alignable with offshore subsidiaries of multinational corporations (MNCs). The implications of organizational structure for academic freedom in teaching and research are discussed in this article. Drawing on examples from the literature, the investigation shows that over time as the IBC establishes its reputation locally, there is pressure for an increase in the academic freedom of academic staff. Our study suggests that over time and depending on the strategic choice of the parent university, the maturity of the offshore institution can be reflected in the increased academic freedom afforded to academic staff. In the interim, the limits to academic freedom and organizational constraints to intercampus collegiality can often lead to conflict.’

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Edwards, R., & Edwards, J. (2001). Internationalisation of education: A business perspective. Australian Journal of Education, 45(1), 76-89.

This article analyzes education export from four theoretical perspectives. Internationalization theory explains higher education export as more efficient than moving large numbers of international students across borders. Dunning’s eclectic paradigm justifies higher education export on the basis that exporting institutions have advantages of ownership, internationalization, and location. The Uppsala model views higher education export as an incremental process. Vernon’s product life cycle model is found to be a poor fit for higher education, but may apply to developing countries that venture into education export. Comparisons are made between exporting education institutions and multinational corporations.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Feast, V., & Bretag, T. (2005). Responding to crises in transnational education: New challenges for higher education. Higher Education Research & Development, 24(1), 63-78.

Feast and Bretag investigate how the SARS epidemic impacted home campus staff of an Australian institution with an Asian transnational program. Two focus groups were conducted with academic and administrative staff. The article reports participants’ perceptions of changes in work practices, health issues, personal matters, student needs, and miscellaneous issues as a result of the SARS epidemic that disrupted the university’s normal delivery of its transnational program. Participants indicated increased workloads and stress levels, which were partly attributed to the lack of contingency planning in advance.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Healey, N.M. (2016). The challenges of leading an international branch campus: The ‘lived experience’ of in-country senior managers. Journal of Studies in International Education, 20(1), 61-78.

‘In recent years, an increasing number of major universities have set up international branch campuses (IBCs). There are now over 200 IBCs, with more under development. Little is known about the unique challenges that face IBC managers, who are normally seconded from the home university to set up and operate the satellite campus in a new and alien environment. At the same time, there are significant financial and reputational risks for the home university should an IBC fail. This paper reports the results of a qualitative study into the ‘lived experiences’ of IBC managers working in the three largest host markets for IBCs – China, Malaysia and the United Arab Emirates. It finds that the fundamental challenge for managers is balancing the competing demands of a range of internal and external stakeholders and concludes that universities need to do more to prepare and support IBC managers.’

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Healey, N.M. (2015). Towards a risk-based typology for transnational education. Higher Education, 69(1), 1-18.

‘Transnational education (TNE) has been a growth area for UK universities over the last decade. The standard typology classifies TNE by the nature of the activity (i.e., distance learning, international branch campus, franchise, and validation). By analysing a large number of TNE partnerships around the world, this study reveals that the current typology has declining value because partnerships are becoming multidimensional and blurring the boundaries between one type and another. It draws on partnership theory and transaction cost analysis to develop a new risk-based typology, using six dimensions of a TNE partnership. The new typology provides a risk profile for a TNE partnership which identifies the sources of reputational risk to the home university.’

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Hefferman, T., & Poole, D. (2004). “Catch me I’m falling”: Key factors in the deterioration of offshore education partnerships. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 26(1), 75-90.

Hefferman & Poole research the early interaction phase of Australian programs in Southeast Asia using ten case studies and interviews. The type of investment made during the early building phase is a crucial factor that can lead to success or failure. Findings were consistent with other studies in that the absence of trust, commitment, and effective communication led to deterioration of offshore education partnerships. The level of internal commitment by an Australian university, the identification of roles and responsibilities of the partners, the establishment of a non-win/win relationship, and the departure of key personnel were factors occurring during the early phase of offshore partnerships that later weakened the relationship.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Jie, Y. (2010). International partnerships: A game theory perspective. New Directions for Higher Education, 150, 43-54.

This chapter utilizes game theory to investigate how divergent partner motivations and outcome expectations create synergy and present implementation challenges in Sino-U.S. cross border higher education. A case study of a partnership between a Chinese business school and an elite U.S. institution is used. Findings indicate a high congruence of motivations between the two institutions, including enhancing brand influences, generating revenue, and providing faculty and student learning opportunities. However, once the program was established, outcome preferences diverged between the institutions, including the priority of brand influence versus enrollment size. Findings were consistent with the game theory framework and predictions.

BOOK CHAPTER: Kim, E.H. & Zhu, M. (2010). Universities as firms: The case of U.S. overseas programs. In C.T. Clotfelter (Ed.), American Universities in a Global Market (pp. 163-204). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

This study compares higher education institutions to firms using economic analysis. Organizational structure, objective function, stakeholder interests, and governance are considered. Higher education’s accountability to multiple stakeholders and its institutional governance are found to be more complex than firms. There were differences in economic motives, demand, alternative choices, assets, and variable costs. Analysis of branch campuses from 1988-2008 concluded that U.S. overseas branches were similar to firms engaging in foreign direct investment. U.S. institutions seek countries with flexible legislation, a business friendly environment, and a large applicant pool. Branch campuses adapt tuition to local competitors to gain student enrollment. Firms behave similarly when investing in a foreign country.

BOOK CHAPTER: McBurnie, G., & Pollock, A. (2000). Decision making for offshore activities: A case study on Monash University. In D. Davis, A. Olsen & A. Bohm (Eds.), Transnational education providers, partners and policy: Challenges for Australian institutions offshore. Canberra: IDP Education Australia.

Using a case study of Monash University, this chapter describes how institutions make decisions about establishing overseas programs. Strategic, educational and business components of decision-making are explored. The strategic component is influenced by the university’s teaching, research and service functions. Country selection depends on the compatibility of educational philosophy with host country infrastructure. The educational component ensures that programs match the institution’s academic goals. The business component involves assessing rewards and risks, which vary between centrally-driven and departmentally-based program proposals. Centrally driven proposals involving the entire university campus have high costs and departmental proposals are less expensive. Market research is conducted to determine whether an offshore program is cost effective.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Shams, F., & Huisman, J. (2012). Managing offshore branch campuses: An analytical framework for institutional strategies. Journal of Studies in International Education, 16(2), 106-127.

‘The aim of this article is to develop a framework that encapsulates the key managerial complexities of running offshore branch campuses. In the transnational higher education (TNHE) literature, several managerial ramifications and impediments have been addressed by scholars and practitioners. However, the strands of the literature are highly scattered and not addressing the issues coherently and consistently. Therefore, in the first section of this article, we review the literature and highlight this fragmentation. In the second section, we borrow and explore a paradigm from the strategic management literature, known as the dichotomy of global integration (I) versus local responsiveness (R).This paradigm leads us to construct a multidimensional framework that proposes a perceptive insight into the field by reframing, reconceptualizing, and synthesizing the managerial complexities from a strategic perspective. It also highlights the hazards of taking polarized strategic stances (global integration or local responsiveness); the analysis suggests a “both-and” approach.We argue that the framework could be used as an analytical tool for TNHE institutions to reflect on their positions and potential change strategies.’

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Tierney, W.G., & Lanford, M. (2015). An investigation of the impact of international branch campuses on organizational culture. Higher Education, 70(2), 283-298.

‘The authors first survey the factors related to globalization that have stimulated the creation of international branch campuses. They then contend that the viability of an international branch campus should not be solely evaluated from a rational choice perspective oriented toward economic self-interest. Rather, the organizational culture of the branch campus and the home campus should also be considered, particularly since institutions are cultural entities with specific symbolic and interpretive ideologies. After analyzing two recent cases concerning New York University’s branch campus in Abu Dhabi and the new Yale-NUS College in Singapore using an organizational culture framework, they suggest that the creation of international branch campuses should be guided by three primary considerations such as (1) the value added by the creation of a branch campus; (2) how the branch campus is reflective of the unique culture of the home campus; and (3) whether faculty members on branch campuses have the same rights, institutional status, and expectations of shared governance that they would have on the home campus. While the text acknowledges that some conflicts are inevitable, the authors suggest that international branch campuses have the potential to foster awareness, enrichment, and understanding with a deeper investigation of these cultural dimensions.’

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Vinen, D.G., & Selvarajah, C. (2008). A framework for sustainability of an offshore education program: A systems based approach. Journal of International Business & Economics, 8(2), 160-169.

A case study of an Australian accounting program in Vietnam is used to explore factors contributing to the sustainability of cross-border education. Stakeholder theory is used to conceptualize cross-border educational enterprises as complex systems. Findings indicate five critical success factors common to all stakeholders: reputation of the Australian university; professional accreditation of the program; effective partnership between the universities; flexible program delivery; and student opportunities to study in Australia. The authors suggest a systematic approach for developing sustainable offshore programs: (1) program planning and development, (2) program accreditation, (3) program pre-delivery, (4) program delivery, and (5) program post-delivery. Activities to promote success are proposed for each stage.

Middle East

BOOK CHAPTER: Bashshur, M. (2010). Observations from the edge of the deluge: Are we going too far, too fast in our educational transformation in the Arab Gulf? In O. Abi-Mershed (Ed.), Trajectories of Education in the Arab World: Legacies and Challenges (pp. 247-272). New York: Routledge.

Based on personal observations, this book chapter reflects on recent education reforms in the Arab Gulf region at the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. Comparisons are made between recent changes and educational reforms from the 1800s. For example, Egypt’s Muhammad Ali opened European-style schools and sent students to study in Europe, but at the same time maintained the pre-existing Egyptian schools. In Lebanon, universities established by missionaries persisted by changing over time and adapting to local social and political realities.

Despite the hope and promise of Qatar’s Education City to provide Qatar with the best programs from institutions around the world, only 4.4% of Qatari students are enrolled in foreign branches in Education City, while 94% are enrolled in the University of Qatar. This imbalance of Qatari students calls into question the impact of Education City on Qatari education. Dubai has established a similar free trade zone for education with the aim of attracting high profile universities from abroad. In contrast, Saudi Arabia has undertaken large-scale reform of its higher education system, seeking to incorporate elements of Western style education while preserving Saudi cultural and social standards. Bashshur suggests that Arab higher education institutions would better benefit from mutual collaboration and a sharing of expertise and resources than from importing foreign branch campuses that tend to operate in isolation with limited enrollment of local students.

Also addressed in the chapter is the growth of independent primary and secondary schools in Qatar and their relationship to the public education sector.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Franklin, A., & Alzouebi, K. (2014). Sustainability of International Branch Campuses in the United Arab Emirates: A Vision for the Future. The Journal of General Education, 63(2-3), 121-137.

‘The United Arab Emirates is developing higher education institutions that will contribute to an educational sector providing premium degree programs. There was a belief that the recognition and achievements these institutions attained over decades in their native land would be transferable in the implementation of international branch campuses. This research project explores the sustainability of branch campuses in the UAE and determines the factors contributing to their demise, struggles, or initial success while examining their mission, vision, and strategic plan, asking: Can institutions be successfully imported into the UAE without adapting to their new social, cultural, and educational terrain?’

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Gyeszly, S. D. (2010). Qatar’s Education City’s university libraries: Patrons, collections, and services. Collection Building, 29(3), 84-90.

This article explores the library utilization of six branch campuses located in Qatar’s Education City in 2009. A comprehensive review of the access and consumption of the online databases, e-journals, e-books, and borrowing of resources was reviewed for Virginia Commonwealth University, Weill Cornell Medical College, Texas A&M University, Carnegie Mellon University, Georgetown University, and Northwestern University branch campuses. The author reported a total of 2,281 possible users of Education City’s branch campus libraries. A total of 502 print professional and popular journals and magazines are subscribed by the six libraries as well as a total of 9,179 audio visual materials. Each library operates independently within Education City and users must check the individual libraries’ catalogues for availability and to confirm circulation policies at each location. It was reported that electronic resources are most preferred, especially in the fields of engineering, business, medical sciences, computer engineering, and journalism and many of these electronic resources can be accessed through interlibrary loan service via ILLiad from their respective main campus library. Library loans requested from the State of Qatar’s universities are more likely to be requested from the University’s home campus rather than the branch campus located in Qatar. Education city plans to open a comprehensive central library in 2013.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Hajjar, D.P., & Gotto, A.M. (2013). Launching of an American medical college in the Middle East: Educational challenges in a multicultural environment. International Journal of Higher Education, 2(2), 67-75.

‘The graduation of the first class of medical students in May 2008 from the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar (WCMC-Q), Cornell University’s branch campus in the Middle East, was the first time that an M.D. degree from an American university was awarded abroad. It marked a milestone in American higher education.

The establishment of WCMC-Q is part of a larger strategy to promote education and develop science policies in Qatar and other areas of the Gulf Arab States. Development of WCMC-Q has proceeded according to our institution’s tripartite mission of fostering excellence in medical education, research, and clinical care. The focus of this article is the development of the educational program in Qatar since its inception, and it reviews critical success factors, the policies aimed at achieving our tripartite mission, and the challenges facing the promotion of medical education in the Gulf region. Critical factors in the success of this project include clearly defined educational objectives, a focus on academic quality and guaranteed academic freedom. Challenges include: 1) faculty recruitment and retention, 2) the integration of local high school students into a competitive science program, 3) the distance separating WCMC-Q from New York City where Weill Cornell Medical College-NY (WCMC) resides. As WCMC-Q continues to grow and expand its long-term mission, it may serve as a model for American universities seeking to establish branch campuses abroad for educational and medical training purposes.’

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Healey, N.M. (2016). The challenges of leading an international branch campus: The ‘lived experience’ of in-country senior managers. Journal of Studies in International Education, 20(1), 61-78.

‘In recent years, an increasing number of major universities have set up international branch campuses (IBCs). There are now over 200 IBCs, with more under development. Little is known about the unique challenges that face IBC managers, who are normally seconded from the home university to set up and operate the satellite campus in a new and alien environment. At the same time, there are significant financial and reputational risks for the home university should an IBC fail. This paper reports the results of a qualitative study into the ‘lived experiences’ of IBC managers working in the three largest host markets for IBCs – China, Malaysia and the United Arab Emirates. It finds that the fundamental challenge for managers is balancing the competing demands of a range of internal and external stakeholders and concludes that universities need to do more to prepare and support IBC managers.’

BOOK CHAPTER: Ibnouf, A., Dou, L., & Knight, J. (2013). The evolution of Qatar as an education hub: Moving to a knowledge-based economy. In J. Knight (Ed.), International education hubs: Student, talent, knowledge-innovation models (pp. 43-61). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.

’The UAE is well known for its success in attracting branch campuses to two of its economic free zones—Knowledge Village and the Dubai International Academic City. But Dubai isn’t the only emirate successfully involved in cross-border education. Two other emirates—Abu Dhabi and Ras Al Khaimah—are actively engaged in international education and research efforts as well as hosting branch campuses. Totally they host the largest number of branch campuses in any country in the world. A striking feature of the UAE education hub approach is that there is no national plan or coordinating mechanism. Each emirate develops its own strategic plan and local initiatives. It is widely recognized that UAE is dependent on foreign workforce to move it from an oil-based economy to one that is more service and knowledge oriented. To that end, UAE needs foreign talent and realizes that becoming an education hub will support its efforts to train and retain the large expatriate population of students as well as attract international students and workers from the region and beyond.’

NEWS REPORT: Krieger, Z. (2008). An academic building boom transforms the Persian Gulf. The Chronicle of Higher Education.

Krieger examines the strategies of Qatar, Abu Dhabi and Dubai in importing higher education. Qatar provides funding and autonomy to selected American universities to establish branches and pays Qatari students’ tuitions, with the objective of training Qatari citizens. Dubai’s Knowledge Village is oriented towards generating profit since the emirate lacks Qatar’s oil wealth. Its international branches can return their profits to their home countries. Abu Dhabi is the wealthiest emirate and has successfully attracted high profile institutions from France and the United States. Importation of higher education has been criticized as serving “a narrow segment of society.” It is suggested that foreign branches may weaken students’ links to the society in which they were raised.

NEWS REPORT: Lewin, T. (2009, March 1). George Mason University, among first with an Emirates branch, is pulling out. The New York Times.

In this short article, the author describes the closing of George Mason University’s (GMU) branch campus in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). GMU opened in 2005, but closed in May of 2009, and never graduated a student. The reasons given for closure were: low enrollments, no faculty from home campus, turnover in leadership, and a failure to complete local accreditation. The main point of the article is regarding the quality paradox. In order to attract students, foreign branches must maintain quality standards akin to what is offered at the home campus, yet a large part of maintaining such quality involves high admission standards. Since high quality students generally are not available in foreign markets, branch campuses face a paradox when trying to build programs with “instant” quality measures. Still, GMU claims that it is still interested in pursuing cross-border activity, despite this high profile failure.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Miller-Idriss, C., & Hanauer, E. (2011). Transnational higher education: Offshore campuses in the Middle East. Comparative Education, 47(2), 181-207.

‘This paper maps the landscape of transnational higher education in the Middle East, focusing in particular on the recent expansion of satellite, branch, and offshore educational institutions and programs that foreign institutions have set up in the region. Of the estimated 100 branch campuses currently operating world- wide, over one-third are in the Arab region and the majority have opened within the last decade; two dozen additional transnational programs and universities exist in the region as well. Very little research has been conducted on these new institutions, however, raising many questions for scholars in education. This paper traces reasons for the rapid growth of the transnational higher education model in the Arab states and discusses the explanatory power for this phenomenon of the two major prevailing theories in comparative and international education. We argue that neither neoinstitutional theories about global norm diffusion nor culturalist theories about the local politics of educational borrowing and transfer sufficiently explain this phenomenon, and call instead for a regional approach. We also raise questions for further inquiry.’

REPORT: Observatory on Borderless Higher Education (2009). Moving out, moving on? US-based George Mason University becomes the first institution to withdraw from the UAE. London: Observatory on Borderless Higher Education.

The George Mason University (GMU) campus in the United Arab Emirates in 2009 noted that it will close down after being in existence for barely three years (OBHE, 2009). GMU was one of the first tertiary institutions to establish a branch campus in the United Arab Emirates (offering undergraduate degrees) and has become the first to withdraw. Its student population was thus left in limbo since GMU’s programs were not accredited by the Ras Al Khaimah (RAK) emirate’s Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research. The major reason for the closure, according to Provost Peter Stearns, was a cut in subsidy by 50 percent for the 2009/2010 academic year by their major partner, the RAK government. A second reason was the low enrolment numbers of students from the sub-region in the first three years. It was expected that student initial enrolment would be 200 and increase to 2,000 by 2011, but by 2009, the total enrolment was 180. Options given to students whose academic program had been affected by this closure were: (i) Students continuing at GMU’s official campus in Virginia by giving tuition discounts to those who will attend; and (ii) Other foreign university branch campuses in the UAE will accept affected students transferring to their institutions.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Rawazik, W., & Carroll, M. (2009). Complexity in quality assurance in a rapidly growing free economic environment: A UAE case study. Quality in Higher Education, 15(1), 79-83.

In response to higher education demand, the United Arab Emirates has increased higher education opportunities for Emiratis. Additionally, universities from the United States, United Kingdom and Australia have established campuses to satisfy demand from UAE’s expatriate population. The government has established the Knowledge and Human Development Authority (KHDA) to assure quality of branch campuses. KHDA’s model focuses on ensuring equivalent quality between the branch and its home campus. The Universities Quality Assurance International Board (UQAIB) aids quality assurance by providing the KHDA with independent and international information. Besides the KHDA, the UAE has two other quality assurance bodies; differences between the quality assurance systems present a challenge of mutual recognition between them.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Rostron, M. (2009). Liberal arts education in Qatar: Intercultural perspectives. Intercultural Education, 20(3), 219-229.

This article explores tensions between the liberal arts perspective of Western higher education and the expectations of Qataris for transnational programs. Qatari education is historically rooted in religious instruction, oral tradition, memorization, and transmission of knowledge. Liberal arts values of education as dialogue, active learning, and critical thinking have exposed tensions as Western education institutions have opened programs in Qatar. Historical foundations of Qatari education and liberal arts education are described. The article describes Qatar’s internal debate on the drawbacks and benefits of western-style education in the country.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Schoepp, K. (2009). The United Arab Emirates and the branch campus gold rush. International Higher Education, 56, 22-23.

A period of rapid growth of higher education in the United Arab Emirates has intensified the development of American branch campuses in the Emirate. This hurried expansion of branch campuses will lead to a few successes and a number of failures. George Mason University, the most-high-profile casualty in the current system, is not the first and will not be the last. The effect of the failure of branch campuses on students and others is addressed.

Wilkins, S. (2010). Higher education in the United Arab Emirates: An analysis of the outcomes of significant increases in supply and competition. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 32(4), 389-400.

This study analyzes the impacts of the U.A.E.’s saturated higher education market on student recruitment, student experiences, quality, and institutional strategies. Findings indicate that institutions face difficulty differentiating themselves in a crowded marketplace. Quality is also a concern, as the highest quality students choose to study abroad or to attend public universities. Student shortages prompt some institutions to lower admission standards, causing concerns about institutional prestige. Student retention concerns pressure faculty to satisfy student demands, leading to grade inflation and diminished quality. Research capacity is inhibited in the humanities and social sciences by conservative political environments. Wilkins recommends that institutions recruit students from outside the U.A.E., operate more like businesses to differentiate themselves, and focus on customer satisfaction.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Wilkins, S., Balakrishnan, M.S., & Huisman, J. (2012). Student satisfaction and student perceptions of quality at international branch campuses in the United Arab Emirates. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 34(5), 543-556.

‘The international branch campus has emerged as a popular form of transnational higher education but to date little research has been undertaken on student perceptions and experiences, other than the student feedback evaluations conducted by institutions. This research employed a survey questionnaire to investigate student perceptions of study at international branch campuses in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), the country which hosts the largest number of branch campuses globally. Across the seven dimensions examined – programme effectiveness, quality of lecturers and teaching, student learning, assessment and feedback, learning resources, use of technology, and facilities/social life – it was found that students are largely satisfied. The findings refute many of the criticisms of international branch campuses in the literature, regarding quality, political or ideological issues.’

Quality & Accountablilty

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Ahmad, S.Z. (2015). Evaluating student satisfaction of quality at international branch campuses. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 40(4), 488-507.

‘The aim of this research is to present the determinants of students’ perceptions of quality and experience of study at international branch campuses in Malaysia, a country that is set to become an academic hub in Asia. This study used a multi-method approach for data collection. The respondents comprised 245 students (both undergraduate and postgraduate) from six renowned international branch campuses operating in the country – three from Australia, two from the UK and one from India. In addition, a total of 21 face-to-face interviews were conducted after the survey. The results revealed that across the seven dimensions examined concerning education and non-education qualities – university reputation/image, programme quality, lecturers and teaching quality, student learning environment, effective use of technology, counselling and academic advising support, and social life (direct/indirect) facilities – the students were largely satisfied. The paper adds to the existing body of research on higher education service quality, particularly on students’ perceptions and expectations of international branch campuses.’

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Blackmur, D. (2007). A critical analysis of the UNESCO/OECD guidelines for quality provision of cross-border higher education. Quality in Higher Education, 13(2), 117-130.

This article criticizes elements of the 2003 UNESCO guidelines on practices and principles in transnational education, arguing that the guidelines have been developed without consideration of the potential negative and positive benefits associated with implementation. The author discusses several important implications and limitations of the guidelines.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Borgos, J.E. (2013). Using principal-agent theory as a framework for analysis in evaluating the multiple stakeholders involved in the accreditation and quality assurance of international medical branch campuses. Quality in Higher Education, 19(2), 173-190.

‘This article applies the theoretical framework of principal-agent theory in order to better understand the complex organisational relationships emerging between entities invested in the establishment and monitoring of cross-border international branch campus medical schools. Using the key constructs of principal-agent theory, information asymmetry and goal conflict, the article explores the multiple information asymmetries and potential goal conflicts that exist in the establishment of branch campus medical programmes. A review of the literature on international medical programme oversights revealed several considerations for organisations to contemplate in the physical movement of their institutions across borders. Using examples drawn from Weill Medical College in Qatar and Newcastle University Medicine Malaysia, the article illustrates how multiple overlapping agencies can provoke information asymmetry regarding quality standards and conflict of goals between the branch campus and the accrediting agencies. In the cases of international branch campuses, differentiating the principal and the agent is often difficult.’

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Coleman, D. (2003). Quality assurance in transnational education. Journal of Studies in International Education, 7(4), 354-378.

This study investigates the consistency of delivery of academic content for a transnational academic program. A total of 88 student and staff interviews were conducted across two branch campuses – one in Jakarta, Indonesia, and another in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Comparing interview data with university documents, Coleman finds that contrary to university mechanisms designed to ensure the sameness of academic programs, differences in teaching and testing exist. Study participants demonstrate no consensus regarding the relationship between the home campus and branch campus or the desired composition of the most effective teaching staff.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Dobos, K. (2011). “Serving two masters” – academics’ perspectives on working at an offshore campus in Malaysia. Educational Review, 63(1), 19-35.

‘This paper explores the effects of the internationalisation of higher education on the working lives of academics at an offshore campus in eastern Malaysia. Using the interpretivist paradigm and grounded theory methods it investigates their perspectives on various themes as those emerge during a series of interviews. These emerging themes are: “Professional Practice”, “Communication”, “Quality Assurance” and “Curriculum Issues”. These themes are interrelated, are tied together with the anchor theme of “serving two masters” and expose important areas that need to be monitored by both the offshore and Australian partners in order to ensure the quality and success of their cooperation in the long term.’

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Edwards, J., Crosling, G., & Edwards, R. (2010). Outsourcing university degrees: Implications for quality control. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 32(3), 303-315.

As educational institutions establish overseas programs, quality control becomes increasingly important. The authors apply transaction cost analysis to the issue of quality control. The report concludes that there is a risk when developing license arrangements and that universities should carefully monitor all contracts. The authors recommend that quality control systems should be implemented to assess the financial viability of overseas partners; that teaching and assessment standards be studied; and that all marketing material be examined for content and accuracy.

BOOK CHAPTER: Egron-Polak, E. (2007). Sharing quality higher education across borders: A responsibility of higher education across borders. In Global University Network for Innovation (Ed.), Higher education in the world 2007: Accreditation for quality assurance: What is at stake? (pp. 130-133). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

In response to the growth of market driven activities in education around the world, the International Association of Universities, the American Council on Education, the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, and the Council for Higher Education Accreditation worked in collaboration to address quality issues. The respective councils and associations developed a formal statement which includes a set of principles and recommendations aimed at higher education institutions and governments regarding quality assurance in cross border education. The author states that these principles and recommendations are intended to identify some broad academic values, concerns for social responsibility, and solidarity. In addition, the aim of the statement is to bring awareness of threats to cross- border education such as poor quality, inappropriate programs, unfair and destructive competition with local institutions, and education for purely commercial purposes while at the same time bringing awareness to the positive aspects of cross-border education. This article also touches on the trade limitations with respect to cross-border education such as trade frameworks not being designed to deal with research and broader social and cultural purposes, conflicts between trade policy and national education policy, and the complexity and unintended consequences of applying trade rules to higher education systems designed to serve the public interest and fulfill institutional missions. In conclusion the author states that it is the responsibility of all those involved in cross-border education to share in the responsibility of ensuring quality in cross-border education.

BOOK CHAPTER: Knight, J. (2007). Cross-border higher education: Issues and implications for quality assurance and accreditation. In Global University Network for Innovation (Ed.), Higher education in the world 2007: Accreditation for quality assurance: What is at stake? (pp. 134-146). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

While cross-border education providers seek accreditation to ensure the legitimacy of their institutions and programs, distinguishing between genuine and illegitimate accreditation agencies is a challenge. In response, Knight proposes a registry of genuine accreditation agencies. For exporting countries, regulations help protect students and partner institutions from low quality, illegitimate providers. Regulations aid importing countries by ensuring growing access to higher education and lessening brain drain. Disadvantages include foreign institutions pulling out if profit margins are low and the restriction of cross-border education to those with an ability to pay.

BOOK CHAPTER: Lee, M.N.N. (2007). Cross-border higher education and quality assurance in Asia-Pacific. In Global University Network for Innovation (Ed.), Higher education in the world 2007: Accreditation for quality assurance: What is at stake? (pp. 146-148). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Lee indicates that provision of cross-border higher education in Asia-Pacific has been influenced by policies of governments, parents, and student requests for foreign education. Asians constitute about 70 percent of students studying in the United States, United Kingdom and Australia. According to the author, 20 Asian states have ratified a UNESCO Regional Convention on the Recognition of Qualifications. This makes it imperative on member states to recognize degrees either for employment or further education. However, the issue of quality was not addressed in this regional convention.

To address this deficiency in the Asia-Pacific region, a joint effort by UNESCO Bangkok and the Asia-Pacific Quality Network (APN) resulted in the UNESCO-APN Toolkit: Regulating the Quality of Cross-Border Higher Education in 2006. A major objective of this provision emphasizes quality in cross-border higher education and the establishment of quality assurance mechanisms. It also provided the needed guidance in establishing regulatory frameworks governing quality, as well as samples of regulations in exporting and importing countries of higher education.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Lim, F.C.B. (2008). Understanding quality assurance: A cross country case study. Quality Assurance in Education, 16(2), 126-140.

Lim investigates differences in perceptions of quality assurance between an Australian university and its offshore partner in Malaysia. Both partners viewed audits of the offshore program as superficial and not effective in enhancing quality. Interviewees were evenly divided on whether the university should be ultimately responsible for quality or if the responsibility should be shared. Agreement was found on existing quality measures and objectives, but perceptions varied on what it meant to provide programs that were “comparable” to the university’s domestic courses. While interviewees at all levels in Malaysia were aware of quality assurance policies, Australian administrators were aware and faculty were not. Partners agreed that student assessment was the most effective quality assurance policy.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Lim, F.C.B. (2008). Education hub at a crossroads: The development of quality assurance as a competitive tool for Singapore’s private tertiary education. Quality Assurance in Education, 17(1), 79-94.

Lim investigates how national quality assurance schemes are understood and implemented at two private higher education institutions in Singapore, both offering franchised programs from overseas institutions. Twelve staff members were interviewed. Interviewees perceived effective measures of quality as those relating to education delivery practices, including student evaluations, examinations, and teacher observations. National quality frameworks relate to business practices and are not perceived as improving quality.

BOOK CHAPTER: Middlehurst, R. (2011). Accountability and cross-border higher education: Dynamics, trends and challenges. In B. Stensaker & L. Harvey (Eds.), Accountability in higher education: Global perspectives on trust and power (pp. 179-202). New York: Routledge.

The author addresses several issues that are raised by accountability in cross-border higher education. These issues include: challenges, changing foci, mechanisms, quality assurance concerns, and supra-national regulation. Specific challenges arise from the need to reconcile the requirements and expectations of individual nations and supra-national accountability agencies, the inequalities between net importers and net exporters, changing accountability forms caused by ICT technologies, and broader, sometimes conflicting expectations for the higher education sector at national and international levels. The main variables of cross-border accountability are national motivations and rationales for engaging in cross-border activity, protecting local institutions from competition, the legal status of providers, cultural attitudes towards forms of provision, and whether countries are importers and exporters. Middlehurst notes that there are three levels of accountability regimes in cross-border accountability: national or state-level regimes that regulate their own exporting providers; national, state, or regional regimes regulating importing providers; and supra-national regimes that offer general principles and guidelines.The author updates Burke’s Accountability Triangle to include the supranational node, resulting in an “Accountability Diamond” model. Middlehurst concludes that supranational accountability is likely to move from “soft” accountability based on recommendations to more “hard” accountability based on regulations and performance reporting. In addition, there will likely be increased standardization of cross-border accountability.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Nguyen, T.D. (2009). Signal quality and service quality: A study of local and international MBA programs in Vietnam. Quality Assurance in Education, 17(4), 364-376.

Nguyen investigates the relationship between the quality of MBA programs in Vietnam and the programs’ representations of quality through marketing signals. The author describes students as operating in an environment of asymmetric information in which they have difficulty assessing program quality and suggests that high quality signals will result in perceptions of high quality among students. Mixed methods were used in this study; the qualitative phase consisted of interviews with four MBA program managers and two student focus groups. Qualitative interviews aided the development of measurement constructs used in the quantitative phase of the study. In the quantitative phase, 459 students were surveyed through face to face interviews using a seven point Likert-type scale. Of the students interviewed, 257 were enrolled in local Vietnamese programs and 199 were enrolled in international programs operating in Vietnam. Results indicate positive relationships between signal quality and perceived quality, perceived quality and program loyalty, program investments and signal quality, and program investments and signal quality. No significant differences were found between students in domestic and international programs. Furthermore, Nguyen finds that high quality signals are related to investment in the program and that quality signals are marked by clarity, consistency, and credibility.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Rawazik, W., & Carroll, M. (2009). Complexity in quality assurance in a rapidly growing free economic environment: A UAE case study. Quality in Higher Education, 15(1), 79-83.

In response to higher education demand, the United Arab Emirates has increased higher education opportunities for Emiratis. Additionally, universities from the United States, United Kingdom and Australia have established campuses to satisfy demand from UAE’s expatriate population. The government has established the Knowledge and Human Development Authority (KHDA) to assure quality of branch campuses. KHDA’s model focuses on ensuring equivalent quality between the branch and its home campus. The Universities Quality Assurance International Board (UQAIB) aids quality assurance by providing the KHDA with independent and international information. Besides the KHDA, the UAE has two other quality assurance bodies; differences between the quality assurance systems present a challenge of mutual recognition between them.

BOOK CHAPTER: Singh, M. (2002). International quality assurance, ethics, and the market: A view from developing countries. In S. Uvalic-Trumbic (Ed.), Globalization and the market in higher education. Quality, accreditation, and qualifications. Paris: UNESCO Publishing.

Singh examines the economic and political effects of globalization as they relate to quality assurance and cross-border education. The author anticipates that higher education will eventually be subject to the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) with the result that importing countries may not have any control over transnational education providers. Singh notes that due to the fee paying nature of private tertiary education, providers tend to focus on the “prosperous sector.” This impacts the equity agenda of developing countries since not all prospective students have the ability to pay. The author is of the opinion that international quality assurance will deal with ambiguities by ensuring that transnational tertiary education contributes to the development agenda of developing countries.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Stella, A. (2006). Quality assurance of cross-border higher education. Quality in Higher Education, 12(3), 257-276.

This article provides background on UNESCO-OECD’s Guidelines for Quality Provision in Cross Border Higher Education. The negotiations were informed by four views of cross-border higher education: the international view; the disadvantaged view; the trade promoter’s view; and the view that cross-border education is a non-issue. UNESCO-OECD’s cooperative quality assurance framework is necessary because of the increasing internationalization of higher education; cross-border higher education’s value for developing countries; and the increased need to demonstrate legitimacy in response to rogue providers. The article concludes with the scope of the guidelines, sending and receiving country perspectives, discussion of good practices, and future directions.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Woodhouse, D. (2006). The quality of transnational education: A provider view. Quality in Higher Education, 12(3), 277-281.

This article describes the Australian Universities Quality Assurance Agency’s (AUQA) role in quality assurance for Australian transnational education. AUQA has experienced challenges in conducting on-site overseas audits, as they are expensive and burdensome. AUQA has responded by creating a framework of triggers that activate an onsite audit, rather than auditing all overseas programs. Additional challenges include host country perceptions of overseas audits as “quality assurance colonization”; lack of interaction with the host country’s agencies; and AUQA’s lack of jurisdiction over partner institutions. AUQA has sought to alleviate these issues by memoranda of cooperation with host country quality assurance agencies.

Students

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Ahmad, S.Z. (2015). Evaluating student satisfaction of quality at international branch campuses. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 40(4), 488-507.

‘The aim of this research is to present the determinants of students’ perceptions of quality and experience of study at international branch campuses in Malaysia, a country that is set to become an academic hub in Asia. This study used a multi-method approach for data collection. The respondents comprised 245 students (both undergraduate and postgraduate) from six renowned international branch campuses operating in the country – three from Australia, two from the UK and one from India. In addition, a total of 21 face-to-face interviews were conducted after the survey. The results revealed that across the seven dimensions examined concerning education and non-education qualities – university reputation/image, programme quality, lecturers and teaching quality, student learning environment, effective use of technology, counselling and academic advising support, and social life (direct/indirect) facilities – the students were largely satisfied. The paper adds to the existing body of research on higher education service quality, particularly on students’ perceptions and expectations of international branch campuses.’

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Hussin, V. (2007). Supporting off-shore students: A preliminary study. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 44(4), 363-376.

Hussin investigates learning support services for Asian students in Australian transnational programs. Fifteen staff members from 12 Australian universities were surveyed about the programs available to transnational students. Eleven universities operated websites with general learning support information (study skills, academic grammar); seven institutions offered online materials (web tutorials, workshops); six institutions offered email consultations; five institutions offered in-country programs; and four institutions provided support through CD-ROMs. Many services educated students on avoiding plagiarism. In-country programs and email consultations were found to be the most effective forms of learning support, but they also have the heaviest staff workload, so they may not be sustainable on a wide scale basis. A model for collaborative learning development for transnational students is proposed.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Wilkins, S., & Balakrishnan, M.S. (2013). Assessing student satisfaction in transnational higher education. International Journal of Educational Management, 27(2), 143-156.

‘Given that there exists in the literature relatively little research into student experiences in transnational higher education, this study seeks to identify the determinants of student satisfaction at international branch campuses in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This quantitative study involved 247 undergraduate and postgraduate students at branch campuses in the UAE who completed a questionnaire using either hard copies or an online version. It was found that levels of student satisfaction at UAE branch campuses were generally high. The factors that were most influential in determining whether or not a student at a UAE branch campus was satisfied overall with their institution were quality of lecturers, quality and availability of resources, and effective use of technology. The findings indicate that there remains scope for UAE branch campuses to further increase levels of student satisfaction. Managers might use the findings to review their own institution’s performance so that areas for improvement can be identified. Given that cultures, customs, traditions and social contexts vary considerably in different locations, the findings of this study are not generalisable across all international branch campuses globally. The logit model developed had an 87.4% success rate in predicting whether or not a student at a UAE branch campus was satisfied overall with their institution, demonstrating the potential usefulness of logistic regression as a predictive and explanatory tool in education management.’

CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS: Wilkins, S., & Balakrishnan, M.S. (2012). Student perception of study at international branch campuses: Implication for educators and college managers. Proceedings of the Academy of International Business – Middle East North Africa Chapter, 2nd Annual International Conference.

‘It is widely accepted that in any service industry it is the customer who defines service quality, so it is logical for researchers and practitioners to research the customer perspective. The international branch campus has emerged as a popular form of transnational higher education but to date little research has been undertaken on student attitudes, beliefs and experiences, other than the student feedback evaluations conducted by institutions. This quantitative study employed a survey questionnaire to investigate student perceptions of study at international branch campuses in the United Arab Emirates. Across the seven dimensions examined, it was found that students are largely satisfied, but several issues have been identified that managers can attempt to address in order to further improve service quality and student satisfaction at their institutions.’

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Wilkins, S., Balakrishnan, M.S., & Huisman, J. (2012). Student choice in higher education: Motivations for choosing to study at an international branch campus. Journal of Studies in International Education, 16(5), 413-433.

‘The international branch campus has emerged as a prominent feature on the international higher education landscape. Although there exists a fairly substantial body of literature that has sought to identify the motivations or choice criteria used by international students to select countries and institutions, there has to date been little research on student motivations for studying at an international branch campus. This quantitative study, using the push-pull model of international student destination choice as its theoretical framework, involved 320 undergraduate and postgraduate students studying at branch campuses in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). It was found that the main motivations of students who choose to study at an international branch campus are different to those students who choose to study at home campuses. Thus, we propose a revised model of international student destination choice, which incorporates two distinct sets of push and pull factors – one that applies to the home campuses of Western universities and one that applies to international branch campuses. In addition to developing the theory on international student choice, our findings may be used by higher education institutions to better understand both their existing and potential students, with the view to applying segmentation techniques in their marketing activities.’

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Wilkins, S., Balakrishnan, M.S., & Huisman, J. (2012). Student satisfaction and student perceptions of quality at international branch campuses in the United Arab Emirates. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 34(5), 543-556.

‘The international branch campus has emerged as a popular form of transnational higher education but to date little research has been undertaken on student perceptions and experiences, other than the student feedback evaluations conducted by institutions. This research employed a survey questionnaire to investigate student perceptions of study at international branch campuses in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), the country which hosts the largest number of branch campuses globally. Across the seven dimensions examined – programme effectiveness, quality of lecturers and teaching, student learning, assessment and feedback, learning resources, use of technology, and facilities/social life – it was found that students are largely satisfied. The findings refute many of the criticisms of international branch campuses in the literature, regarding quality, political or ideological issues.’

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Wilkins, S., & Huisman, J. (2011). International student destination choice: The influence of home campus experience on the decision to consider branch campuses Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 21(1), 61-83.

‘Previous research has found that the country and institution choices of international students are greatly influenced by recommendations they receive from others who have experience of undertaking higher education overseas. For Western universities, it is of utmost importance to satisfy their international students, who can then encourage the next generation of international students to attend those same institutions. However, student satisfaction is not the only factor at play. Using a framework of „push and pull‟ factors, rooted in the international student choice literature, this exploratory study investigates the determinants of destination choice of international students who decided to study at a university in the UK and examines their attitudes toward international branch campuses. The survey results and analyses suggest that overseas campuses could pose a considerable threat to home campuses in the competition for international students in the future.’

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Wilkins, S., & Huisman, J. (2011). Student recruitment at international branch campuses: Can they compete in the global market? Journal of Studies in International Education, 15(3), 299-316.

To understand the student market facing international branch campuses this study investigates the motivations of international students. Surveys of 160 international students in the U.K. identified factors influencing students’ decisions to study overseas; factors contributing to institutional choice; and whether students would consider an international branch campus. A logit model was developed to predict the likelihood that a student would consider an international branch campus. The model accurately predicted 96.6% of the students who indicated they would not consider an international branch campus and 37.8% of students who indicated they would consider an international branch. Reputation and quality were significant in students’ institutional selection, suggesting that the ability of international branch campuses to provide quality research and instruction may relate to their ability to enroll students.

Teaching

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Debowski, S. (2005). Across the divide: Teaching a transnational MBA in a second language. Higher Education Research & Development, 24(3), 265-280.

China represents a growing market for transnational programs, but many challenges exist for schools that seek to offer high-quality learning in a cost effective manner. Bi-lingual programs are especially challenged to establish an effective teaching/learning environment when teaching involves the use of translators. Especially difficult is monitoring learning outcomes. The paper identifies some ways in which teaching staff can be supported. Universities that attempt to teach with the use of translators should be cautious before they venture into this complex educational setting.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Dobos, K. (2011). “Serving two masters” – academics’ perspectives on working at an offshore campus in Malaysia. Educational Review, 63(1), 19-35.

‘This paper explores the effects of the internationalisation of higher education on the working lives of academics at an offshore campus in eastern Malaysia. Using the interpretivist paradigm and grounded theory methods it investigates their perspectives on various themes as those emerge during a series of interviews. These emerging themes are: “Professional Practice”, “Communication”, “Quality Assurance” and “Curriculum Issues”. These themes are interrelated, are tied together with the anchor theme of “serving two masters” and expose important areas that need to be monitored by both the offshore and Australian partners in order to ensure the quality and success of their cooperation in the long term.’

BOOK: Dunn, L., & Wallace, M. (Eds.). (2008). Teaching in transnational higher education: Enhancing learning for offshore international students. New York: Routledge.

This book presents wide-ranging perspectives on teaching in transnational education programs. Part I discusses key emerging issues facing transnational education, including actors’ needs and motivations, power differentials between exporting and importing countries, and how these concerns relate to the delivery, content, and quality of transnational education. Part II addresses the tensions between Western style education and the adaptation of teaching practice to local contexts. Part III explores how students experience transnational education, including how transnational students experience curricula that aim to impart values of internationalism, multiculturalism, and collaborative and independent learning. Part IV addresses risks that institutions face when engaging in transnational activity. Several case studies highlight difficulties faced by transnational programs. The final chapters present recommendations for improving transnational education for teachers, students, institutions, and others.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Gopal, A. (2011). Internationalization of higher education: Preparing faculty to teach cross-culturally. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 23(3), 373-381.

‘The need to effectively prepare faculty to teach in a cross-cultural environment has become imperative in the context of globalizing higher education (Deardorff, 2009; Verbik, 2007). Many higher education institutions around the world have internationalized their degrees and programs, and they have established foreign branch campuses to provide their intellectual resources in other countries (Altbach, 2010; Armstrong, 2007). In this paradigm, faculty members are contracted from the home campus or from an outside organization to teach in the foreign branch, but they receive little formal preparation to teach in this type of environment (Lewin, 2008; McBurnie & Ziguras, 2007). Faculty members are unaware of culturally competent pedagogical strategies on how to respond in culturally sensitive ways, and thus they lack the ability to successfully communicate and work with learners from other cultures (Paige & Goode, 2009). This paper focuses on preparing faculty to teach cross-culturally at international branch campuses. Using Darla Deardorff’s process model of intercultural competency, I will develop a framework that focuses on three core elements of Deardorff’s process model—attitudes, knowledge and comprehension, and skills—that will help faculty members to teach internationally. In the paper’s conclusion, I will suggest best practices and discuss the implications of intercultural competency for transnational teaching.’

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Gribble, K., & Ziguras, C. (2003). Learning to teach offshore: Pre-departure training for lecturers in transnational programs. Higher Education Research and Development, 22(2), 205-216.

The authors investigate the training of offshore lecturers, training’s perceived relevance and usefulness, and views on the preferred types of preparation. Of the 20 offshore lecturers interviewed, none participated in pre-departure training, although many participated in cross-cultural teaching and learning workshops. Lecturers valued informal mentoring with experienced offshore faculty because changing host country conditions quickly make formal training obsolete; formal training is too generic; and experienced lecturers are viewed as more knowledgeable. Interviewees viewed onshore teaching of foreign students as adequate preparation for teaching abroad. Recommendations include: providing information about general issues that lecturers routinely face; providing country-specific information relevant to offshore contexts; and developing systems to enhance informal support and sharing of information.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Hussin, V. (2007). Supporting off-shore students: A preliminary study. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 44(4), 363-376.

Hussin investigates learning support services for Asian students in Australian transnational programs. Fifteen staff members from 12 Australian universities were surveyed about the programs available to transnational students. Eleven universities operated websites with general learning support information (study skills, academic grammar); seven institutions offered online materials (web tutorials, workshops); six institutions offered email consultations; five institutions offered in-country programs; and four institutions provided support through CD-ROMs. Many services educated students on avoiding plagiarism. In-country programs and email consultations were found to be the most effective forms of learning support, but they also have the heaviest staff workload, so they may not be sustainable on a wide scale basis. A model for collaborative learning development for transnational students is proposed.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Kelly, M.E., & Tak, S.H. (1998). Borderless education and teaching and learning cultures: The case of Hong Kong. Australian Universities’ Review, 41(1), 26-33.

This article challenges stereotypes of Asian learners favoring rote memorization; relying on content rather than argument; being reluctant to challenge, discuss, or critique; and expecting the teacher to deliver “correct” answers. Research suggests that while Asian students engage in memorization, they do so to gain deeper understanding rather than as the end goal of education. Stereotypes of authoritarian Asian teachers are challenged when considering the mentoring relationships that occur outside class and the individualized instruction that Asian teachers provide. When teaching across cultural borders it cannot be assumed that Asian students will adapt to Western teaching styles. Cultural borders must be considered alongside political, economic, and regulatory borders when designing and implementing cross-border higher education programs.

REPORT: Phillips, J.C. (1997). Teaching offshore distance learners. In J. Osborne, D. Roberts, & J. Walker (Eds.), Open, flexible, and distance learning: Education and training in the 21st century: Selected papers from the 13th biennial forum of the Open and Distance Learning Association of Australia. Launceston, Australia: University of Tasmania.

This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study that involved interviewing lecturers and writers of distance learning materials at an Australian university. The author reported on the perceptions of the subjects and how the addition of offshore distance learners affected their teaching. The paper also discusses the interviewees’ views concerning the skills, knowledge and attitudes they believe lecturers and writers need in order to provide an effective learning environment for offshore distance learners. Those interviewed also identified the support mechanisms required to enhance effective and efficient learning for offshore distance learners. Modifications to learning materials and other educational resources used in distance learning programs were identified.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Rostron, M. (2009). Liberal arts education in Qatar: Intercultural perspectives. Intercultural Education, 20(3), 219-229.

This article explores tensions between the liberal arts perspective of Western higher education and the expectations of Qataris for transnational programs. Qatari education is historically rooted in religious instruction, oral tradition, memorization, and transmission of knowledge. Liberal arts values of education as dialogue, active learning, and critical thinking have exposed tensions as Western education institutions have opened programs in Qatar. Historical foundations of Qatari education and liberal arts education are described. The article describes Qatar’s internal debate on the drawbacks and benefits of western-style education in the country.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Ziguras, C. (2001). Educational technology in transnational higher education in Southeast Asia: The cultural politics of flexible learning. Educational Technology and Society, 4(4), 8-18.

This article examines educational technology in transnational higher education in Southeast Asia. Although some technologies are appropriate for some countries, use of technology is not appropriate in nations in Southeast Asia where instruction has traditionally been teacher-directed. Ziguras examines government policies on technology use in higher education in Singapore, Malaysia, and Vietnam, and reviews the experiences of five institutions that have offered higher education in those countries.

Trade & Regulation

REPORT: American Council on Education (2007). U.S. update on the GATS negotiations and issues for higher education. Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education.

This report provides an update on the Doha round of negotiations of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). A primary goal of the Doha round is to spread the benefits of international trade to developing countries, but because of several difficulties, negotiations were suspended in 2006 and 2007. Difficulties included the broad scope of the negotiations, which encompassed agriculture, non-agricultural market access, and services. The procedure for negotiation on services is fundamentally different than the other two areas and cannot proceed until the other two areas have made progress.

Services negotiations are divided by sector and each country makes an offer representing their interests in that sector. The U.S. offer on higher education addresses concerns that public and private higher education institutions might be treated differently under GATS. As well, ACE has sought to ensure that a GATS agreement will not challenge U.S. federal and state laws or traditional practices and policies of U.S. higher education. The WTO principle of “national treatment” seeks to ensure that policies do not favor domestic interests over foreign interests. The U.S. offer seeks limitations on the national treatment principle, including the right to restrict U.S. federal and state funding and tax benefits to U.S. institutions, and the right to restrict student aid to U.S. residents or residents of certain states. However, there still exists the possibility that U.S. higher education institutions may face challenges under GATS.

REPORT: Garrett, R. (2005). The Global Education Index 2005, part 2: Public companies’ relationships with non-profit higher education. London: Observatory for Borderless Higher Education.

The Global Education Index (GEI) tracks fifty public companies operating internationally in higher education. The idea behind the GEI is that publicly traded firms are the best means to gauge the competitive threat to non-profit higher education from commercial interests. Public companies are most mature, report consistent metrics, and are a bell-weather for the industry as a whole. Part 2 of the GEI focuses on relationships between companies and non-profit higher education. Firms are grouped under four types: direct competitors, indirect competitors, competitive service providers, and non-competitive service providers. The GEI found:

Type 1 companies (direct competitors) operate for-profit colleges, targeted at individuals. These continue to post enrollment growth and strong financial performance, but enrollments may be flattening out. There was slower consolidation and internationalization than in 2003/04.

Type 2 companies (indirect competitors) serve markets of tangential but potential interest to non-profits, such as e-learning software providers or IT specialist training firms. These firms initially employed “dotcom rhetoric” that adopted higher education nomenclature (campus, university, etc.), but this has faded over time. Non-profits do not generally see these institutions as invading their commercial space. The historical separation between these firms and traditional higher education remains intact.

Type 3 companies (competitive service providers) provide services to and receive services from non-profits, but also undertake activities to directly or indirectly compete with the non-profit sector. These firms increasingly provide services that involve core teaching and learning activities. This indicates a broader trend of outsourcing in non-profit higher education.

Type 4 companies (non-competitive service providers) sell administrative or learning support software (Blackboard, etc.). Trends are very new, but the author speculates that leading vendors will steadily come to terms with higher education over functionality that is both viable as a mass market product and customizable at the local level.

REPORT: Knight, J. (2006). Higher education crossing borders: A guide to the implications of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) for cross-border education. Vancouver: Commonwealth of Learning & Paris: UNESCO.

Knight examines the opportunities, risks and challenges in transnational higher education globally and its operations in the context of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). The objective of GATS is to decrease trade restrictions. GATS is the first international legal agreement on trade in services, and Knight examines the four supply procedures and its application to cross-border education as well as the trade restrictions on them. The first procedure is “cross-border supply,” indicated as distance learning and virtual universities; there is “restriction” on educational material. Second is “consumption abroad” where students go on study abroad programs; limits are placed on travel depending on area of study. Third is “commercial presence” of a local branch; the regulation stipulates having a local partner. Fourth is the “presence of natural persons” such as professors who could have visa and entry limitations. Phoenix University, a for-profit private university based in the United States offers programs in Canada, Mexico, the Netherlands, and Puerto Rico and is noted as an example of a development in for-profit cross-border higher education. The varied nature of transnational higher education providers are given as those concentrating only on teaching and provision of services and the traditional universities whose three core functions of research, teaching, and service are maintained. Various methods of providing cross-border programs include twinning, franchising, double/joint degree, articulation procedures between providers, virtual university, acquisition and mergers, and establishing a branch campus.

Knight also examines the “controversial” meaning of Article 1.3 of this agreement which stipulates “those services supplied in the exercise of governmental authority.” It is argued that education provided by government is exempted from GATS, but the definition of what a government funds has been a subject of debate. Another issue of debate is how GATS impacts a country’s ability to effect “regulations” in regard to tertiary education. Knight also argues that the terms “quality assurance” and “accreditation” should be explained differently in reference to higher education. She notes that GATS will have implications on government’s role, education finance and access of students to tertiary education, and concludes that there is the need for research on the limitations to “trade in education services.”

JOURNAL ARTICLE: McBurnie, G., & Ziguras, C. (2003). Remaking the world in our own image: Australia’s efforts to liberalise trade in education services. Australian Journal of Education, 47(3), 217-234.

This article details Australia’s efforts to liberalize trade in education services during GATS negotiations. Australia has been active in promoting trade liberalization largely because of the country’s interest in growing its education export industry. Many other countries associate Australia’s international efforts with a market-driven orientation rather than one of educational quality. In response, Australia has increasingly focused on quality assurance and internationalization of curricula.

REPORT: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Commission on Institutions of Higher Education (2003). Principles of good practice in overseas international education programs for non-U.S. nationals. Bedford, MA: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Commission on Institutions of Higher Education.

The Principles, initially developed through the Council of Postsecondary Accreditation and endorsed by all regional accrediting commissions in 1990, and revised in 2003, have served as the basis for reviews of scores of international educational ventures. All institutions engaged in or planning to engage in developing campuses or moving educational programs abroad should be cognizant of the principles. The Principles are based on the following basic assumptions:
(1) The accredited institution is responsible for whatever is done in its name.
(2) U.S. accredited institutions operating abroad are guests in another country; they become knowledgeable about and respect the laws and customs of the other country and, consistent with their mission, enhance the community in which they operate.
(3) The accredited institution bears the responsibility to assure that the international entity does not claim for itself or infer any accredited status other than that held by the accredited institution.
(4) The accrediting commission retains the right to review overseas international programs for non-U.S. nationals on evaluation cycles different from those established for the home institution.
(5) The accredited institution is expected to bear the costs of reviews and visits required by the accrediting commission.
(6) Unless exceptions are stated explicitly, the Principles supplement but do not supplant the accrediting commission’s stated criteria and requirements for accreditation.

BOOK: OECD (2004). Internationalisation and trade in higher education: Opportunities and challenges. Paris: OECD.

This book reviews cross-border education in North America, Europe, and the Asia-Pacific region. Discussion of the development of cross-border education and the rationales for each region are included. Emphasis is placed on relevant government policies regulating cross-border education and their impact on student access, cost, quality, and capacity building. An argument is made for greater policy coherence among governments and stakeholders.

REPORT: Verbik, L., & Jokivirta, L. (2005). National regulatory frameworks for transnational higher education: Models and trends, Part 1 & Part 2. London: Observatory on Borderless Higher Education.

Part 1: Institutions’ reluctance or inability to carry the costs and risks of establishing international campuses has led to an increase in collaborative provision. However, uncertain operating environments could potentially lead to institutions’ decreased willingness to operate under a model that affords limited control over certain aspects of the operation.

Part 2: This report discusses concerns over regulation of transnational education. While some countries have developed regulations for foreign providers, many do not regulate transnational education. The move towards regulation appears driven by concerns over quality. Case studies of Malaysia, Japan, South Africa, and Greece are included. Also included is information on regulatory models used in the case study countries, as well as Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, India, South Korea, and the United Arab Emirates.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Ziguras, C. (2003). The impact of the GATS on transnational tertiary education: Comparing experiences of New Zealand, Australia, Singapore, and Malaysia. Australian Educational Researcher, 30(3), 89-110.

The need for higher education in Malaysia has prompted the government to establish a regional education hub and the passage of the Private Higher Education Institution Act of 1996. The act allows for increases in private higher education and is regarded as important for Malaysian higher education. International branch campuses have improved the framework of Malaysian higher education and have significantly reduced the country’s demand-supply gap. Transnational institutions have assisted Malaysia’s efforts to establish itself as a regional education hub.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Ziguras, C., Reinke, L., & McBurnie, G. (2003). ’Hardly neutral players’: Australia’s role in liberalizing trade in education services. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 1(3), 359-374.

Education is a major export for Australia and is publicly referred to as an “industry” as well as a “sector.” Unlike the United States and Canada, Australia has pursued the expansion of its transnational education services and demonstrated that it considers this “sector” to be a viable, market-oriented product. The Australian government has made changes to its education regulations to encourage free trade in education while also assuring that issues such as quality and consumer protection are not ignored.

United States

BOOK CHAPTER: Eckel, P. D., Green, M., & Berniaz, K. (2007). U.S. providers and programs abroad: A proposed cross-border framework. In S. Marginson (Ed.), Prospects of higher education (pp. 141-154). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Sense.

Higher education institutions in the United States operate cross-border education programs for a number of reasons. A drive for revenue encourages the development of entrepreneurial programs that bring in tuition dollars. Institutions may also seek to elevate their prestige by operating internationally. Lastly, institutions may see international programs as a means of increasing quality through exposure to international standards and through the participation of faculty and students in international activity.

REPORT: Green, M.F., Eckel, P.D., Calderon, L., & Luu, D.T. (2007). Venturing abroad: Delivering U.S. degrees through overseas branch campuses and programs. Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education.

This paper explores questions relating to the activity of educational campuses overseas by U.S. colleges and universities. Questions explored throughout the paper are concerned with: what is the extent of the activity; why are institutions pursuing the establishment of offshore programs; and what are the challenges that institutional leaders face from these establishments. The investigative report is broken into five sections: the tricky terrain of cross-border education; opportunities and drivers for cross-border education; mapping the landscape; global hot spots; and issues for leaders. The report finds that institutions are venturing into cross-border education for multiple reasons. These reasons are summed up into two broad sections: the push of institutional goals and the pull of emerging opportunities. It also finds that campuses are off-shored from public, private not-for-profit, and for-profit institutions and that cross-border education has many different types of programs offered in different institutional forms, ranging from full-fledged campuses to a minimal presence. The current hot spots for off-shoring education are China, Singapore, and India. The report recommends, due to cross-border education being new, that leaders need to consider their mission and strategy and decide whether or not internationalizing their programs need to include the opening of branch campuses.

REPORT: Green, M.F., Kinser, K., & Eckel, P.D. (2008). On the ground overseas: U.S. degree programs and branch campuses abroad. Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education.

The paper addresses the opportunities and challenges faced by U.S. institutions that open branch campuses in foreign countries. The study draws on two data sources. First, ten institutions that offer degrees abroad to non-U.S. students are profiled, ranging from public to private, from high-profile to less well-known. Second, principals from these institutions were invited to a day-long conversation to learn from their collective experiences. Four major themes are addressed: origins and drivers of programs; program creation; general advice for institutional leaders; and arguments or warnings about overseas degree programs. The paper should be of special interest to organizational leaders in higher education that are in the process of considering or creating overseas programs. Key findings follow:

Origins and Drivers
The study found five categories of motivations for developing overseas programming. Branch campuses offer a way to:
-Internationalize the home institution.
-Help the host country meet its educational needs.
-Increase revenue.
-Enhance prestige.
-Enhance institutional quality.

Program Creation
The study develops and addresses four key questions impacting the creation of overseas programs:
-Who enrolls, teaches, and manages?
-What is taught and how?
-What facilities are needed and how should they be obtained or constructed?
-How should the branch campus be financed and administered?

Advice from the Field
The study condensed the advice from the principals into 8 broad recommendations:
-Connect the program or branch campus abroad initiative to existing institutional programs, operations, and structures.
-Do your due diligence.
-Be prepared to invest the time, energy and resources required over the long run to launch and sustain the initiative abroad
-Be prepared for cultural differences.
-Be flexible because conditions will change.
-Be vigilant on quality.
-Take a long-term perspective.
-Know when to say when.

Skepticism and Warnings
The study grouped arguments against branch campuses into:
-Cultural imperialism.
-The commodification of higher education.
-Negative impact on the receiving country.
-Uncertain contribution to internationalization of the home campus.
-Threats to academic freedom.
-Helping the competition (foreign governments)
-Financial risks
-Reputational risks
-Burdensome and changing regulations in the host country.

In sum, the paper benefits from the voices and practical experience of institutional leaders who have lived the experience of developing and operating foreign branch campuses. The study offers valuable lessons, practical advice, and important warnings.

NEWS REPORT: Lewin, T. (2009, March 1). George Mason University, among first with an Emirates branch, is pulling out. The New York Times.

In this short article, the author describes the closing of George Mason University’s (GMU) branch campus in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). GMU opened in 2005, but closed in May of 2009, and never graduated a student. The reasons given for closure were: low enrollments, no faculty from home campus, turnover in leadership, and a failure to complete local accreditation. The main point of the article is regarding the quality paradox. In order to attract students, foreign branches must maintain quality standards akin to what is offered at the home campus, yet a large part of maintaining such quality involves high admission standards. Since high quality students generally are not available in foreign markets, branch campuses face a paradox when trying to build programs with “instant” quality measures. Still, GMU claims that it is still interested in pursuing cross-border activity, despite this high profile failure.

REPORT: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Commission on Institutions of Higher Education (2003). Principles of good practice in overseas international education programs for non-U.S. nationals. Bedford, MA: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Commission on Institutions of Higher Education.

The Principles, initially developed through the Council of Postsecondary Accreditation and endorsed by all regional accrediting commissions in 1990, and revised in 2003, have served as the basis for reviews of scores of international educational ventures. All institutions engaged in or planning to engage in developing campuses or moving educational programs abroad should be cognizant of the principles. The Principles are based on the following basic assumptions:
(1) The accredited institution is responsible for whatever is done in its name.
(2) U.S. accredited institutions operating abroad are guests in another country; they become knowledgeable about and respect the laws and customs of the other country and, consistent with their mission, enhance the community in which they operate.
(3) The accredited institution bears the responsibility to assure that the international entity does not claim for itself or infer any accredited status other than that held by the accredited institution.
(4) The accrediting commission retains the right to review overseas international programs for non-U.S. nationals on evaluation cycles different from those established for the home institution.
(5) The accredited institution is expected to bear the costs of reviews and visits required by the accrediting commission.
(6) Unless exceptions are stated explicitly, the Principles supplement but do not supplant the accrediting commission’s stated criteria and requirements for accreditation.

REPORT: Observatory on Borderless Higher Education (2009). Moving out, moving on? US-based George Mason University becomes the first institution to withdraw from the UAE. London: Observatory on Borderless Higher Education.

The George Mason University (GMU) campus in the United Arab Emirates in 2009 noted that it will close down after being in existence for barely three years (OBHE, 2009). GMU was one of the first tertiary institutions to establish a branch campus in the United Arab Emirates (offering undergraduate degrees) and has become the first to withdraw. Its student population was thus left in limbo since GMU’s programs were not accredited by the Ras Al Khaimah (RAK) emirate’s Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research. The major reason for the closure, according to Provost Peter Stearns, was a cut in subsidy by 50 percent for the 2009/2010 academic year by their major partner, the RAK government. A second reason was the low enrolment numbers of students from the sub-region in the first three years. It was expected that student initial enrolment would be 200 and increase to 2,000 by 2011, but by 2009, the total enrolment was 180. Options given to students whose academic program had been affected by this closure were: (i) Students continuing at GMU’s official campus in Virginia by giving tuition discounts to those who will attend; and (ii) Other foreign university branch campuses in the UAE will accept affected students transferring to their institutions.

Western Europe

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Amaral, A., Tavares, O., Cardoso, S., & Sin, C. (2015). Shifting institutional boundaries through cross-border higher education. Journal of Studies in International Education, 20(1), 48-60.

‘Cross-border higher education (CBHE) has been changing the organizational boundaries of higher education institutions (HEIs). This study aims to analyze the shifting boundaries of Portuguese HEIs through the lens of the identity concept in organization theories, considering three contexts with different levels of regulation: African Portuguese-speaking countries, Brazil, and Europe. These different regulation contexts allow to analyze how the level of national regulation influences CBHE, how this relates to the shifting boundaries of HEIs, and how the public or private character of the institutions plays a role in influencing boundary shifts. This research indicates that shifting boundaries through CBHE are influenced by institutional identities shaped by different rationales and conditioned by local policy contexts. Public universities have refrained from creating campuses abroad or from franchising activities, and their international activities seem driven by academic and cultural rationales. Public polytechnics, more recent than universities, seem more open to embarking on CBHE, suggesting the existence of a malleable identity. Contrary to the public sector, private institutions have created campuses abroad, mainly in African Portuguese-speaking countries, apparently following an economic rationale to guide their CBHE activities.’

ESSAY: (2007). Fazackerley, A. (Ed.). British universities in China: The reality behind the rhetoric. London: Agora – The Forum for Culture and Education.

Agora holds the position that UK universities are rushing into Chinese ventures without a clear understanding of how UK universities can benefit in the short- and long-terms. The think tank advocates for a more careful examination of the relationship between UK universities and the terrain and development trajectory of Chinese higher education. The report calls into question the logic of entering the Chinese education market. Reports are compiled from leaders in UK-China partnerships reflecting on the difficulties of operating in the Chinese environment. Case studies of ventures of Liverpool University, Nottingham-Ningbo, and Queen Mary, University of London are included.

Contents:
Introduction – Anna Fazackerley
Removing the Rose-Tinted Spectacles – Professor Ian Gow
Building Relationships, Not Assets – Dr. David Pilsbury
Navigating the Legalities – Andrew Halper
Overseas Campuses: the Management Perspective – Professor Michael Shattock
Bridging the Cultural Chasm – Dr. Helen Spencer-Oatey
Understanding Student Needs – Professor Rebecca Hughes
Case Study 1: Liverpool, the Stand-Alone University
Case Study 2: Nottingham-Ningbo, the Overseas Campus
Case Study 3: Queen Mary, UoL, the Joint Degree Programme

BOOK CHAPTER: Doorbar, A., & Bateman, C. (2008). The growth of transnational higher education: The UK perspective. In L. Dunn & M. Wallace (Eds.), Teaching in transnational higher education (pp. 14-22). New York: Routledge.

This chapter presents a UK perspective on the role of transnational higher education as part of capacity building for developing countries. Transnational education includes distance and e-learning, franchising arrangements, twinning, and other collaborative provisions. The authors report on the drivers, motivations, and views on transnational education; models of delivery; quality assurance; and the profile of transnational education students. The authors conclude that there is an excellent potential for further developments in transnational education to include not only course delivery but also staff development, research collaboration, and capacity-building of local universities.

REPORT: Lanzendorf, U. (2005) Mapping German transnational activities – Is a more commercial approach slowly being adopted? London: Observatory on Borderless Higher Education.

DAAD, the German Academic Exchange Service, is a national organization that aids higher education institutions in exporting their education services abroad. The DAAD administers seed funding offered by the German government to German institutions wishing to start programs abroad, with the requirement that the programs must be entrepreneurial and have the ability to be financially self-sustaining after government funding ends. In addition, the DAAD organizes teaching and research exchanges, administers scholarships and other programs in developing countries, and promotes German education abroad. This article provides a brief history of the DAAD, describes some international programs funded by the DAAD, and summarizes the nature and impact of international recruitment activities.

A critical analysis of Germany’s efforts to internationalize its higher education sector finds that the rationale for internationalization has shifted from supporting partnership and academic exchange to increasing Germany’s competitiveness globally. However, despite changing rationales, the nature of Germany’s international activities has not changed significantly. Comparisons between the German, U.K., and Australian approaches to internationalization are included.

REPORT: The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education (2009). Allez-y? France’s latest transnational education initiatives to increase its market share in North Africa and the Middle East. London: Observatory on Borderless Higher Education.

This report discusses several French higher education initiatives in North Africa and the Middle East. Because of past colonial collections, French institutions have a number of long-standing collaborations in the region, which include dual degree programs, research partnerships, and staff mobility programs, but no full-fledged branch campuses at the writing of the report. Paris-Dauphine University is scheduled to open France’s first international branch campus in Tunisia in September 2009, with Bachelor’s and Master’s programs in economics, management, and law.

The Middle East and North Africa have received attention from French business schools who view them as a way to make up for a stagnant domestic economy. As well, French companies in the region are increasingly relying on native staff rather than expatriates, so there is a growing market for native workers with French qualifications. French business schools agree that Morocco is the most reasonable location for transnational education in North Africa, and there is the possibility that Casablanca may become a business education hub for francophone Africa. The Middle East has also received attention from French institutions as a promising center for student exchange and institutional partnerships. French institutions are also recruiting international students to come to France from a wide range of countries.

REPORT: Observatory on Borderless Higher Education (2007). Staying ahead of the game? Warwick University’s plan to become an international hub. London: Observatory on Borderless Higher Education.

According to the Observatory on Borderless Higher Education (OBHE, 2007), the UK’s University of Warwick is the first British higher educational institution to invite research institutions across its borders to start programs on its campus. The perceived advantage of this strategy is for the university to become an “intellectual gateway” and also to give staff and students the opportunity to collaborate with international faculty in research. In addition the university hopes that this strategy will bring more foreign students and staff onto the campus. The University of Warwick anticipates that it will enjoy similar “benefits” as enjoyed by institutions establishing branch campuses in other countries. In 2005, University of Warwick’s plan to establish a branch campus in Singapore was not approved by the University Senate since it was noted as too ambitious and risky in terms of returns on investment. Since 2006 various courses have been taught by international lecturers and Warwick professors on the university’s campus. Upon successful completion, students are given a University of Warwick degree. However, the establishment of an international campus on a home campus is not an option for many universities as they may not have the physical facilities for such expansions.